Taking shelter at an inn, the traveler mentions the apparition, and the local schoolmaster volunteers a story. The story is both simple and subtle, and its peculiar power is to surprise us slowly. It is a story of determination, of a young man, Hauke Haien, living in a remote community Storm depicts the village with the luminous precision of a Vermeer , who is out to make a name for himself and to remake his world. It is a story of devotion and disappointment, of pettiness and superstition, of spiritual pride and ultimate desolation, and of the beauty and indifference of the natural world.
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It is a story that opens up in the end to uncover the foundation of savagery on which human society rests. The first modern translation of one of Theodor Storm's finest stories. Grieshuus is a dense short narrative set against the historical canvas of the wars that swept northern Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, telling through dramatically shifting perspectives the story of the fall of a noble family whose seat is Grieshuus manor on the north German heath.
Supreme in his gift for creating and sustaining atmosphere, Storm interweaves local legends and superstitions with regional chronicles of the period in which eyewitness accounts foretell 'terrible times' to come. Der Schimmelreiter ist eine Novelle von Theodor Storm. Classics simplified for Language Learners presents to you "Der Schimmelreiter"! The book is rewritten in simple language, adapted to the needs and vocabulary of advanced German learners with a completed B1-level.
A good story is a good story, with original language or with simplified language! Enjoy the story about Hauke Haien and the challenges he faces on his way to the top to become the responsible for the dykes in his region in Northern Germany. If you've ever dreamed of reading a German Classic in German, here is your chance! In case you are interested in a German-course with a unique methodology and guaranteed success, please go to www.
Excerpt from Immensee: With Introduction, Notes, Vocabulary, and English Exercises In personal appearance Theodor Storm was a stately man, broad-shouldered, erect, and tall, a magnificent specimen of the hardy north-frisian race from which he had sprung. His massive head was covered with an abundance of light-brown, later snow-white, hair; and his kind face, brightened by large blue eyes, made such a deep impression that once seen it could not easily be forgotten. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy.
In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works. The Rider of the White Horse is a classic German novella, in which the individual wrestles with the mass, the man with the most elementary forces of nature.
The scene of the novella is characterized with vividness in its setting of marsh and sea, it glorifies love, and at the same time it touches themes which deeply occupied Storm, such as the problem of heredity or the relation between father and son. Happiness is won, but it ends in tragedy. It is a man of sober intellect who tells the whole story - and yet, like human life itself, it stands out against a mystic background. Remembrance of long ago has clarified everything. It is Storm's last complete work. Here are three contrasting works from Theodor Storm's middle period-the s.
The title story is an affectionate portrayal of the vanishing world of the marionette theatre with its guild-dominated society of the traveling puppeteers and their gypsy-like way of life. Both these stories are translated into English for the first time. One of Storm's most moving stories, ""Renate,"" records the memories of an eighteenth-century Lutheran pastor and his love for a farmer's daughter who is persecuted by the local community for alleged witchcraft. The fifth selection of Denis Jackson's path-breaking translations of Storm's classic novellas, containing what is unaccountably the first English translation of the title story, one of its author's most subtly told narratives.
In the long-admired tale ""Aquis submersus"", the meaning of a mysterious inscription on the portrait of a dead child is unraveled in the course of a story that is both a powerful critique of the landowning Junker class and a tragedy of passion. Translated by Denis Jackson. To read both these novellas is to undergo a memorable and moving literary experience. Perhaps because 19th-century German writer Theodor Storm wrote mostly Novellen -- tightly sturctured long stories composed in lyrical prose -- little of his work is available in English.
Hans and Heinz Kirch consists of three of these Novellen, two appearing for the first time in English translation The title story tells of a battle between father and son on the Baltic coast of Germany. Storm was born on the 14th of September, in the small town of Husum, on the west coast of Schleswig, then a formally independent duchy ruled by the king of Denmark.
His father, of humble origin, was an attorney, but his mother, whose interest in family life, art, and nature Storm inherited, had a patrician heritage. A volume of his own poetry, issued in , was expanded through a seventh edition in Mood Novels All of Storm's works have a lyrical quality, but shifting emphases allow them to be divided into groupings. His first novella, Immensee , is the most popular of his stories. A charming, romantic idyll, it is told through the technique of reminiscence, has little action, and projects a lyrical mood of melancholy and resignation.
As the analyses see 3. These peculiarities of English and German regarding the naming and gendering of animals lead Jackson transl. The Dykemaster. London: Angel Books, This dichotomy of colours as a way to reveal the nature of the Hero—and never the nature of horses—was reinforced in the emerging black-and-white movies of the Jahrhundertwende where they were easier to identify on a monochrome background see Walker pp.
Analyzing German literature in English entails certain issues for my writing practice, as does the genre of dissertation.
According to MLA guidelines, proper names—no matter which language—are set upright and capitalized, whereas foreign-language nouns are italicized. Brauner or der Braune and der Schimmel are words. But taking their figuration as a companion, their technical agency in the practice of riding, as well as their protagonist status in the stories into account, they are namebearers and the words should be set upright. Brauner and Schimmel are names. CT concepts emphasize nonhuman agency in general, CS concepts stress animal agency in particular, and 50 See p.
The Modern Language Association of America. New York: MLA, Applied scientific research on horse-riding and contemporary manuals serve to untangle the equestrian encounters in the stories by Hofmannsthal and Storm, which so far have mostly been studied from an anthropocentric perspective. This dissertation contributes to the study of riding and to cultural-literary researching methods in the form of wriding. The research questions resulting from all aforementioned reflections are the following: What factors does the experience riding involve?
What happens between the horses and the riders? How are the in-betweens that occur in riding structured? What are liminal characteristics of riding? How does riding entangle CS? How do CT link in riding? What is the relationship between horse-riding and larger contexts beyond the humanimal encounter? What is the relationship of equitation in these novellas and equitation in the era of their production?
How can I write about riding? The following chapters gradually untangle certain problematic nodes of riding and produce new knots of knowledge; the writing is interlinked and loops around them. Chapter 2 introduces the methodology of my investigation in detail: the Companion Species 2. The main chapters are close readings of the two case studies Reitergeschichte 3. Rather than a fixed conclusion, chapter 5. It sums up my analyses for both texts 5. This leads to my interpretation of horse-riding in RG and SR as symptomatic for the unsettling developments in humanimal relationships, and the intellectual and material urge for both grounding and elevation during the Jahrhundertwende era; I argue that current theory covers these intricacies comprehensively 5.
I then repostion my work and present possible further research on horsewomanship or in the field of Environmental Humanities 5. The outro reflects on initial thoughts about riding, writing and wriding 5.
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Methodology 2. Therefore, these two notions can discern the negotiations of liminality within the worlds of the stories and where they tie knots with realities, specifically the ones regarding horse-riding. It always appears in the grammatical plural and is conceived of as pluralistic as well. Figures can be monstrous or mundane, there are many of them, they contain a multitude of faces, and coalesce multiple layers of significance, which figure in both cultural and literary products as well as the material world.
Whenever flesh and blood creatures intermingle with signs and symbols, a figure is formed, or rather, is constantly forming, since figuration is an ongoing dance of beings-in-encounter see Meet 4p. Literally all kinds of animate or inanimate, organic or technological kinds entangle and then mutually constitute each other through interaction. They are at the same time creatures of imagination and possibility, as well as of fierce, ordinary real-life. Interspecies activities are always at least about this doubleness, but do often add even more layers of material or sense to their practice, such as horse, human, tack, text and terrain do when they mix and make worlds by riding.
In this world, biographies of individual figures and blending textures of figure communities can flourish. In her chart of transformation—e. The human body hosts millions of microscopic creatures, lives and miniature worlds, just as it is inhabiting its own micro- and macrocosms that overlap with nature, culture, hi stories, other human or nonhuman animals, and artefacts within certain times and spaces. Therefore, figures and figurations are constantly folding and unfolding on various levels and in various worlds, from Texttier to terra, from symbols to symbioses, from the animal other to the observing analyst.
Figures, figurations and figuring are not only methodological tools to analyse horse, rider and horseriders in RG and SR, but also constitute the practical reading and writing process when interpreting facts and fiction. Its meaning meanders along species assemblages with unruly edges,52 the reciprocal transformation of embryonic cells,53 the perspective of co-presence and practice in the interlocking between speakers of different native languages,54 or articulations among cultures, nations and regions based on a paradigm without sociocultural wholes but with developing relational systems instead.
Contact zones, power and play are first of all very applicable to analyze the in-betweens of equitation in RG and SR, and also point out current concepts and Jahrhundertwende ideas of humanimal communication. By challenging the difference between fact and fiction,57 she exposes how akin CS material and CS stories actually are as they make each other up via encounters in flesh and sign.
Thus, the CS approach invites an incorporation of scientific scholarship in this literary investigation. I will therefore consult research in the fairly new field of ES that negotiates traditional and innovative horse-training, riding techniques and equine welfare, to conduct a practical-ethical analysis of the equitation presented in the two novellas. A fact is a past participle, a thing done, over, fixed, shown, performed, accomplished. Like facts, fiction refers to action, but fiction is about the act of fashioning, forming, inventing, as well as feigning or feinting.
ES is non-commercial and more accurate, for it does not rely on non-measurable concepts such as harmony or respect, but on established notions of learning theory, equine ethology, and quantifiable variables such as the pressures of reins, seat and legs. It abstains from goal-driven horsemanship traditions and aims to be more process-oriented instead. Summing up, I employ the CS approach, particularly the two ideas of figures and contact zones and their application to horse-riding through ES, to analyze the chosen Jahrhundertwende novellas with an innovative and scientifically informed view beyond the scope of previous humanist research on RG and SR.
RG and SR feature an array of actions such as fighting, prancing or riding, which all concatenate human and horse bodies with other nonhuman material through technical interactions that have cultural implications. Thus, these 69 two concepts can distinguish the entangled liminalities in text and context, especially the ones concerning equitation. Macho provides the much-cited explanation for this critical change of perspective: Cultural techniques—such as writing, reading, painting, counting, making music—are always older than the concepts that are generated from them.
People wrote long before they conceptualized writing or alphabets; millennia passed before pictures and statues gave rise to the concept of the image; and until today, people sing or make music without knowing anything about tones or musical notation systems. Counting, too, is older than the notion of numbers. To be sure, most cultures counted or performed certain mathematical operations; but they did not necessarily derive from this a concept of number. It is a CT involving human and equine bodies, tools, tack and movement within an environment.
Similar to the differences in complexity of counting or calculating with fingers, abacus or computer ibid. In the context of equitation they are basal CT such as gates, saddles, reins, or the bodily act of straddling. Hence, it is not the horse, the human or horsemanship, but rather the connection of rider, mount, and artefacts as agents in riding which I will analyze in the novellas. Understanding CT as action-based, connected and alternating recedes from an apprehension of the entangled media elements as extensions of the body, and develops an ethnological-inspired appreciation instead.
Consequently, riding cannot be restricted to bodies, since there are associated things such as gear to wear and the ground to walk on; it also cannot be ascribed to a 71 human body technique that is extended to a horse body, since walking upright on two feet is not like trotting, cantering or galloping with four hooves; riding is a different way to move—for both species participating.
The internal connection and intimate relationship of such highly intricate CT as writing or riding causes the levels of production and presentation to coincide and become coextensive. Considering horse-riding, the act of producing certain movements and the act of performing them constantly merge in the concrete flesh and blood horse-human-dyad acting in a certain time and place.
Chains of operations are to be considered before all the chained items individually, based on the idea that any media only act as media when applied in an action that gives them function. Key is not only to accept the priority of chains of operations, but also to see how these same operations apply to their own results in various ways. This leads to deliberations about instrumentality, and the idea of one operation being the purpose for the next, and this operation being a means to yet another end etc.
Recursive chains serve to investigate the intricate concatenation of the humans, horses and equestrian objects as they appear in RG and SR, particularly regarding the ramifications when their movements and motions in riding overlap with other purposes. Adding the body to the recursive chains linking people, things and signs is one of the newest and most consequential expansions of the CT concept. It is important to keep the term in the plural when talking about the variety of activities, since it is impossible to go from specific to conceptual.
The study of body techniques is not clearly covered by one established discipline. Horse-riding, as an interspecies practice, is typically traversing along the edges of zoology and ethology, sport studies, art, military history or social studies, depending on whether its animalistic, athletic, aesthetic or other aspects are analyzed. Tellingly, it is a multifaceted and somehow marginal activity within the sciences and humanities, which is why understanding it requires such a comprehensive concept as body techniques. He refers to the Platonic idea of techne and extends it for his purposes ibid.
Some scholars argue, that CT do require artefacts or symbols, and that walking, swimming or gestures are therefore not CT but only body techniques. Rather, bodies merge with media and technologies in action—e. The result are fashion trends transmitted by handbooks and expert instructions. It is just their medializations and modes which change temporarily and locally. Mauss classifies body techniques according to biographical rhythms and rituals of the everyday human life, from resting activities such as sitting or sleeping to movements such as walking, dancing or climbing see pp.
Equitation—or any other interspecies activity—is not included. Body techniques are an applicable concept to analyse the mutable physical, historical and traditional aspects of horse-riding as presented in RG and SR, especially with a focus on the social setting of the moving human and animal bodies according to mediated instructions. Most body techniques, however, do not accumulate. Such aspects offer an opportunity to make manuals a signified part of the literary analysis.
There are handbook covering horsemanship from breeding to husbandry but I use the ones with a strong emphasis on equitation, to undertake a material analysis of specific horse-riding passages in the selected novellas. Comprehensive surveys of mostly Western European and North American62 horsemanship such as Geschichte des Reitens: Von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit by Michaela Otte and Die Reitkunst im Spiegel ihrer Meister by Bertold Schirg provide basic overviews of the topic, its terminology and history, especially for the German context of the Jahrhundertwende.
During this era equitation experiences a shift from the military as the main source of riding education in the 19th century to a more athletic and leisure-oriented instruction for civilians in the 20th century. They are particularly valuable for investigations of the practical, physical operations featured in the novellas.
To sum up, I use CT theories, especially the ideas of recursive chains, body techniques and their utilization in contemporary equestrian handbooks, to investigate the selected texts of the era from a novel, posthuman and posthermeneutic perspective in addition to the earlier scholarship about RG and SR. A combination of the two is particularly needed to cope with the complexities of horse-riding in the chosen texts.
Neither theory alone fully covers the elaborate entanglements of the human-horse relationship and riding. Neither of the two theories is an established form of literary criticism either. CS concepts—within the bigger framework of critical Anglo-American posthumanism—and CT concepts—within the framework of German Media Studies—have so far neither been connected by other scholars nor have they reached out to the respective other themselves.
As a result, the two theories complement each other and constitute a kindred but by no means identical approach to horse-riding in literature. They share similarities regarding human-animal relations, critical methodological moments, but also show differences when it comes to their origins and their objects of research. A basic resemblance between CS and CT is that their research is relatively unbound from traditional institutions and determined by its content and methods. There appears to be an overall agreement on nonhuman agency, be it animal, artefact or material.
They also have a profoundly different parentage.
This way, the two theoretical clusters—CT being rather detached from flesh and blood beasts and CS being deeply involved with muddy critters—seem to level each other out considering the epistemological and ethical aspects of CLAS. Entangled, they make for an overall even methodological pairing in my analysis of horse-riding.
Aside from the aforementioned theoretical overlaps, there are other intersecting themes and structures in CS and CT works. The following new notions are filtered from the two fields of research and will be defined in detail further down 2. For both approaches, matter is fact and being down-to-earth is taken literal. Each concept illustrates certain aspects of humans riding horses and indicates how the practice appears in the stories. Entangled, these concepts enable an intricate cultural-literary analysis of equitation in RG 3.
This third is a new product which is unlike its producers, and yet it makes their distinction possible in the first place. It is simultaneously the parent of the involved pair and an 84 overriding third deriving from their connection. Haraway describes the concurrence of humans with other species as follows: There cannot be just one companion species; there have to be at least two to make one. It is in the syntax; it is in the flesh. Manifesto 12 Humans meeting nonhumans never fuse completely,68 and the meeting never ends but perpetually continues. A mundane activity that precedes the detailed form in which its agents come together also allows for counter-intuitive and incongruent moments.
CT theories describe similar structures when dealing with operations that connect humans and nonhumans and produce unique cultural techniques in the course of their ongoing encounters. Since doors and gates conceptually belong to neither side, they permit and even promote mutuality instead of hierarchy. Finally, both approaches resemble each other in how they illustrate their ways of thinking by using linguistic logic and grammatical rationale: verbs vs. Haraway explains the linkage between CS as follows: Reality is an active verb, and the nouns all seem to be gerunds with more appendages than an octopus.
Beings do not preexist their relatings. The world is a knot in motion. Meet 6 Just as she notices how "histories of body and mind [ Cornelia Vismann defines CT as practices that describe what media do, produce, and which actions they prompt. Hence, operations can be executed by nonhuman subjects. Thinking of CS and CT as bearing an emerging third stresses their relational and productive qualities, whether they occur during human-animal encounters, material entanglements or grammatical structures.
Both approaches track and unravel these generative, semiotic knots that manufacture culture, mold nature, mix natureculture and materialize in humanimal relationships. Individuals involved in companionship become worldlier themselves just as they create more livable worlds, e. Kulturtechniktheorie also mentions the world-making forces of CT. CT as in-between thirds not only establish worlds, but enculturate realities and institutionalize symbolic systems within the contingent framework of nature and culture.
Everyday-life practices such as reading, writing, eating, walking, driving, riding and so on produce new worlds within the world. Taking the world-making potential of CS and CT into account emphasizes the perceptional aspects of the humans, animals and artefacts involved with each other within their surroundings. The Harawayan notion of a coalesced natureculture is enriched with a focus on ongoing operations found in Kulturtechniktheorien. An interdisciplinary outreach enables them to supersede the traditional demarcation of Nature and Culture as closed entities, which is put into intellectual practice by the faculties of Sciences and Humanities.
The new approaches dispute such outdated ideas, and question the enclosure of naturally rooted nonhuman animals and culturally 90 productive humans into their alleged realms. Instead, they develop differentiated conceptualizations of naturalcultural worlds formerly known as Nature and Culture. The established dichotomy fuses and frazzles, and the exclusive binary pair is broken up to include phenomena inhabiting its borders.
For the biological sciences it is the study of animals that can reveal these oppressive traditional theories, and Haraway first focuses on primates. In her second programmatic text The Companion Species Manifesto: Dogs, People and Significant Otherness, she deals with the canine-human entanglements in shared hi stories, life, work and training, and comes up with CS as a new category of its own; it is a flesh-blood-and-fur continuation of the smooth cybernetic organisms of the s.
In a next step, thoughts about co-evolution, co-habitation, co-constitution and cross-species embodiment engage with symbiogeneses in a larger frame, namely in the fusion of nature and culture to natureculture—now a compound linking two worlds in one word. Naturecultures emerge when the two supposed realms merge, which happens in the plural, happens in pluralism and has in fact always happened. Scientific thinking must follow these heterogeneous, mundane encounters as best as it can.
Whereas the CS approach aims at conceptually assembling the always-already-merged phenomena of nature and culture in naturecultures, the CT approach appears to disassemble the very prerequisites that make their differentiation possible in the first place.
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As the term implies, CT theory is mostly concerned with the concept of culture, its relation to nature, its difference-engendering powers, and its emergence from CT. According to Siegert the final and most important step is: Yet we always have to bear in mind that the distinction between nature and culture itself is based on a contingent, culturally processed distinction. Cultural Techniques precede the distinction of nature and culture. They initiate acculturation, yet their transgressive use may just as well lead to deculturalization; inevitably they partake in determining whether something belongs to the cultural domain or not.
The way CS and CT theories permit naturecultures to propel their ongoing distinctions, highlights moments of contexture, productive discrimination and recursive 93 branching between humans, animals, their worlds and their complex relatings. Hence, this concept is particularly prolific to interpret the dike project in SR, in which human hands and earthy material entangle via Deicharbeit, and the Schimmelreiter figure, in which species borders are overridden via equitation. It continues with the implied creation of interspecies worlds such as the Reiterperspektive.
Next, it enlarges the perspective to the networks of perpetual, reciprocal processes of domination and determination in naturecultures, as seen in Reiter figures and landscapes. A fourth and last substantial similarity of CS and CT that seems to traverse all the aforementioned structures and manifest them in concrete materiality, is an orientation towards the earthiness in relationship chains as they appear in riding. While both theories refer to earth, soil, the environment, ecological systems and the planet, they do so on different levels of literality.
One has to have a more thorough look at CT research to locate the underlying earthiness in the concepts. Even though both notions are originally concerned with humans practically working with earth, land and soil, they later develop opposing intellectual associations for culture and technology respectively. Linking the terms culture and technique conceptually continues old debates of early 20th century philosophy, but attuning to the agricultural connotations of CT allows a new and more productive perspective see Geoghegan According to Geoghegan, conducting agricultural tools entails a holistic matrix of techniques and practices that establish a logic within the soil and an order among the humans and machines tilling the soil.
The results are cultural distinctions, both as an infinity of distinctions in the land and distinction among lands. Regarding the significance of earthy aspects in both the CS and the CT approach affirms their concern for human-animal relationships and their multi-material, mundane practices involving a larger ecological framework of soil, ground and land.
Haraway introduces figures in the plural and as pluralistic. Beginning with the title of the novella, Reitergeschichte plays with this notion, since Reiter is both a grammatical masculine singular der Reiter and plural die Reiter. The lack of a definite or indefinite article leaves the title also conceptually underdetermined: it is neither Eine Reitergeschichte one of many specimens nor Die Reitergeschichte one of a kind , and there is no subtitle to reveal more. Structurally, this uncertain heading does not lead into the story linearly, but rather seems like a loose thread sticking out of the knots of a theme Reiter- and a genre -geschichte.
These types of figuration seem to move onward chronologically, but in fact they twist inward and spiral beyond the level of lineary order. Thus, they shape layers of entanglement and structure a texture of signs e. Considering the realness of the identical looking rider Lerch sees, but the soldiers Holl and Scarmolin do not see, the scholar suggests to trust the horse as an animal with an unerring instinct, who is startled by the phenomenon. He concludes that Hofmannsthal creates a new genre this way, the unheimliche Geschichte uncanny story , which combines elements that are both undeniable and undefinable.
The focus blurs and shifts from the encountered parties to the encountering itself, because neither the characters nor their counterparts are relevant as entities. Instead, the narration foregrounds the riding towards each other and the subsequent entangling of real and unreal. Harawayan figures deal with the dirty, ugly and deathly, and thus often seem monstrous.
The worldly overcoming of borders between two or more species and layers of reality and irreality, and the micro- and macrocosms that overlap on the bridge outside the village are central. A corporeal Reiter meets a symbolic shadow, which constitutes an encounter within the text but also between text and world. As a story, this simultaneously queries ideas of fact and fiction: Are Lerch and Brauner in the flesh reality or signs in a text? Only few scholars go beyond this interpretation on the level of irreality and identify the double as at least partly real.
Interestingly, the accompanying horse often plays a role in rendering the apparition into an audible, visible, almost tangible appearance but is still not entrusted with agency see Tarot p. Neither the real Austrian cavalry riders nor the imagined characters in the novella obtain meaning before they are entangled in RG.
They are not isolated beings simply connected when they ride, but integrated species who concatenate on all levels of riding, from physical touch over perception to operation.
The man and the horse cohabit as a dyad of two different kinds, and their shared practice of riding as a conjoint movement and use of tools and terrain coexists with the world. There are three moments in RG in which this symbiotic riding and perpetual experiencing the world as a pair that is chained together in practice stands out. RG: 42 In all three examples horse and human figure together. Their riding, or even a disturbance in their riding, connects them with each other and with other artefacts horse shoe, reins, the ground , animals human women, the conspecific cavalry horses and actions observing Vuic, the older woman and the squadron, hearing doors shut, walking, trotting.
Interspecies practices are never just doubles, they often involve more than two species as well as nonanimals. In these particular paragraphs, the CS Lerch and Brauner also co-constitute each other: Lerch becomes a curious, insubordinate, desire-ridden soldier on the back of his mount who enables him to see the woman higher up in the window, quickly separate himself from the group, enter her room, and return after reclaiming his old love.
Brauner becomes a sensitive cavalry horse with bonds to conspecifics, who is cared for and checked upon by his rider when covering uncertain grounds and leads the way back to the group. Mutual figuration happens within the interspecies team which together figures out the world.
They are made of flesh and blood reality just as they are made-up by the potentialities of fiction and grammatical form. Especially the soldier and his horse, who co-constitute each other via material and terrestrial components, ultimately hover over the landscape and create a liminal zone between hovering and treading hooves; they also move flexibly between the realm of linear human history and spiraling Texttier.
Endless worldly encountering and entangling precedes whatever Wesen is—or better: are—involved in the process, just as riding and the written story twist and tie Lerch and Brauner together as a CS figure.
This concentration on certain moments in the entanglements of species and other entities adds more details to the figurations described above. There are two examples for contact zones in RG: the location and fictional setting of the analysed figures, and the human, material and animal enmeshments during riding and fighting.
The first characteristic of contact zones is that they do not include abstract ideas, such as the Human and the Horse and how they essentially connect, but rather deal with particular partners in a specific context, such as Anton Lerch and his horse Brauner set in the Second Italian War of Independence in a story written by Hofmannsthal around in Austria. The narration gives some information about the two characters and embeds them into their environment.
Lerch is an Austrian Wachtmeister, and as a sergeant has several subordinate officers; he had a love affair with the woman Vuic in Vienna ten years ago; he seems frustrated with the poor, exhausting life as a soldier and greedily dreams of a comfortable, well-off civilian existence; he dislikes his superior cavalry captain Rofrano after years of service.
These features do not essentialize the nature of the specimen, but evince their culturalization within certain practices. However, the fact that the word Reiter—on the one hand vague, on the other hand clearly referring to a hybrid—involves a functioning human-horse-dyad makes it accessible for an analysis of contact zones shared by the associated partners. Contact zones can be found between concrete and chimerical figures, in the world, in texts, in textual worlds, and are always historically located.
In RG, it is supposedly the setting of the Second Italian War of Independence during one day, July 22nd between sunrise and sunset, in the area of Milan where the Austrian army defends their Lombardy territory. Lerch and Brauner are part of the avant-garde platoon under Leutnant Graf Trautsohn during several successful, action-packed skirmishes.
Details of fighting commotion and touch during the main combat feature contact zones between humans, animals and the tools and techniques that connect them. RG: 45p. Eventually, the passage reads like following a spiral movement composed of the Harawayan concept: First of all, the contact zones are created in face to face Gesichter involvement.
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He is not only located on the shaking ground but inside the smell of a dust cloud and finally mitten im Feinde, amidst the enemy. In the literally entangling leather reins lies the materiality of the human-horse connection and control. Their meaning is a mutual exchange, whether it is between rider and mount, or between rider and Handpferd near horse. The prey horse walks, trots and gallops alongside the Reiter, concatenated to them by leather straps only but without further physical contact than the zone of human-hand-rein-horse-mouth.
The beautiful roan even avoids stepping on its former rider by lightly lifting its feet over him, and is furthermore described as prancing and sidling about with an elevated head while breathing heavily see RG: This horse is also delicate and young, and such features, combined with the fact that it failed when the officer wanted to cross the river on it, indicate that it is not as well-trained as Brauner. First, the two companions go through moments of asymmetry, in which the power is not equally distributed: sometimes Brauner decides when to move on, e. In other scenes Lerch determines the speed and direction, e.
Second, this unequal arrangement of power and other aspects between the companion species is acceptable and does not lessen their connection. Third and finally, this mutual attunement of rider and horse contains the concatenated bodily, sensible, and mental facets described above, and thus makes riding an isopraxis. Their shared practice is one of cultural discipline and natural spontaneity, in which the agents are always more than one individual but less than a two-piece, more complex than a harmonious unity and less simple than a basic binary.
These contact zones are constantly being constructed along the edges of species, movement, material, and concrete situations in a historical setting. The entanglement of fact and fiction, as well as mundanity and meaning is especially present in the Reiter figure and the ongoing figuration of reiten in RG. Studying their communication in the practice of riding and the ethical aspects of their shared activity considers the intricacy within the rider-horse-network.
This resonates with an interdisciplinary CLAS interpretation of riding in RG, which illuminates some of the ethological, zoological and equestrian entangling in the literary representation of this cultural technique. RG: 43p. The sudden sound of the screaming rat surprises Brauner, he reacts by stopping and staring at the ground where the rodents roll around, which breaks up the relatively regular riding so far.
ES also explains shying, among other so-called fight and flight responses, with a shift of stimulus control from the equestrian and his signals to the environment surrounding the riding dyad, which causes the horse to act adversely: For all animals, the world is full of conflicting stimuli, so certain stimuli achieve stimulus control at the expense of others.
When the environment maintains stimulus control over the ridden or handled horse, the horse may baulk, accelerate, shy, rear or buck in response to the environmental stimulus instead of responding to the signals from the rider or handler. ES ; original emphasis For the moment of shying, stopping and staring, the connection between human and horse is interrupted and the chain of signals and responses embedded in mutual kinematic and biomechanical rhythms is literally halted.
It is noteworthy that this leg pressure is applied as a pure body technique without the help of spurs. Except basic reins and saddles, the use of tools for more than the training phase or occasional short-term effect is avoided see ES pp. RG: 45 The cavalry horse breathes audibly, uttering a sound so unusual that the soldier does not even attribute it to the animal but seeks its source above and beside himself, before seeing their double on the other side of the bridge. He faces all of these during the village ride that culminates at the old stone bridge. Brauner seems to be more sensitive to the circumstances than Lerch, who only becomes aware of them thanks to his horse.
Examples are endurance riding over unfamiliar land or trail-riding where hazards e. Second, it is necessary to examine the riding aids that are presented in the text. Der Braun konnte keinen Schritt mehr tun. RG: 44; my emphasis The chain-like connected parts of riding further link with other practices, such as shooting, and thus form a certain flow of movements and even events. Passing through the village, two rats on the street startle Brauner so that he stops.
Lerch uses them sparingly, and according to the newest notions of ethical riding only to fortify and refine leg signals see ES of acceleration for a quick response. The rider is so impatient to reach their double that he even uses the spurs to drive on his horse. The light pressure acts as a predictor of a period of stronger pressure and its subsequent release, so that the horse soon learns to respond to the light signals. ES The human protagonist and his horse partner skip the order and in-betweens on the scale of strong pressure-light pressure-no pressure, and thus become sensitive for such sequences in the analyzed novella.
This mutuality not only exists in-hand but especially when the rider is in the saddle. These ideas add a scale of light-heavy to the practice of riding. The seat makes the riding dyad remain in a particular rhythm or tempo by sweeping forwards or backwards in the saddle. Cavalry surely belongs to the top bracket of equestrians by training and everyday routine. In the analyzed novella, there are only three moments in which Lerch does not sit on Brauner, entangled in isorhythm: when he dismounts to capture enemies, to check on the horse shoes, and when he slides off the saddle dead.
Pressure is not simply applied via one clear signal, but is distributed along a scale. Another key element is to consider nonhuman agency in an analysis of cultural endeavours. For the cultural technique horse-riding, the basic mutual connecting of human and equine bodies in motion on the ground is the core.
A new practice emerges that has no original or natural form. Either later in time or further into the linkage of more complex concatenations do the recursive chains form a network of agents that involves the equestrian equipment and riding environment. The process of chaining together such operations has priority before the resulting chain, and simple operations are less important than recursive ones for an analysis. The novella is about Reiter, a rider or riders. At first sight, this describes a human straddling an animal and thus only one part of the riding dyad which includes a mount.
Besides the human and horse bodies there are additional agents concatenated in riding, such as the equipment attached to them, the surface and the surroundings. All this forms a network in which the actions conducted by the participants build upon and revert back to each other, linking in loops. It connects to contiguous operations of the cavalry and creates their own world. The riding, fighting, handling, connecting and disconnecting operations as a pattern precede the ontological concept: a mix-up of human and animal bodies, body parts and material. Separating man from beast connects the two, and actually even makes men more similar to how they construct beasts.
Brauner is equipped with bridle and rein, and pulling on it signals his human to move see RG: 42 ; Lerch sits in a saddle and wears spurs to signal his horse into motion see RG: These tools are embodiments of liminality and belong to neither species or to both at the same time. Sorted according to speed from slow to fast, they serve different functions. During the ride through the abandoned village, Lerch-Brauner mostly switch between setting out to galopp and decelerating to a walk see RG: 43, Lerch is often in control of the speed and style of their rhythmic riding, but the war horse determines it as well, e.
This even pertains for kindred categories such as Bodenhaftung horseshoe-riding-hoof, grounding-riding-elevating. It is in the entanglings of equitation that these boundaries are never concluded, but constantly negotiated on a scale, which results in their perpetually productive liminality. Here, certain power relations lead to a mismatch of one operation in riding being the purpose for another, which has an altogether different end.
In the text, this change of object within riding is shown in the scene where Lerch stabs an opponent officer: [Er] war auf einmal allein, am Rand eines kleinen Baches, hinter einem feindlichen Offizier auf einem Eisenschimmel. In this chain of actions, killing is linked with riding, which is characteristic for cavalry. Certainly, this challenges traditional relations of intent and instrument in RG and replaces a cause-and-consequence order with a ramification of purposes along chains. A purely linguistic example for the displacement of purpose can be found in the term parieren see RG: 43, This indicates that slowing down a horse is interlinked with making the animal obey the riding aids: slowing down an obedient horse to deflect an attack is a crucial action in cavalry riding.
Another instance that illustrates the effects of chain-like recursions in the physical and symbolical actions of horse-riding is the convergence of how the bodies ride and what the bodies do in riding—and that meaning is assessed through their utilization. Taking the mounting and dismounting in the novella, it becomes clear that equitation only converges within its own solidifying operations and excludes activities that dissolve it.
RG: 46p. RG shows that riding, especially in everyday cavalry style, constitutes something more sophisticated than concrete, but isolated body techniques. It chains together established series of motions that are embedded in a cultural context. The plurality of body techniques calls for an analysis of concrete examples. With a focus on horse-riding, there are three prominent aspects of physical equitation methods in RG: bodies as primary instruments, body parts and materials merged in practice, and body techniques as socio-historically located entities.
An emphasis on feeling shows how riding is sensed with the entire body. Whenever their riding feels off, Lerch dismounts or applies equestrian signals with his hands or legs, and Brauner simply disconnects from the rider. Lerch knows what to do and does it to his best knowledge, skillfully working with the bodies and the involved materials. The second aspect of horse-riding as a body technique is about parts as elements in the entanglements of the practice as a whole. This mostly concerns the artefacts, materials and technologies the human and animal bodies merge with in action, and how they act within the chain of equine procedures.
Instead of analyzing separate tools such as horse shoe or reins, or individual steps such as mounting and dismounting, these items and techniques are looked at in their complex coordination—which is how they appear in RG. With the capture of Eisenschimmel, a very complex sub-category of the riding practice enters the story: das Handpferd.
Also, this horse is guided by the human hand, not the legs, seat or body. Hence, he might not be a fully integrated part of the chain. The bond between human hands and horses is strong. Human warrior bodies merge with their defensive technology and turn into riding shields; flesh and blood entangle with leather and metal; action and function overlap and become the embodiment of a very specialized practice.
The cuirassiers are indeed a special task force, and also the type of military rider that constitutes, as it were, the transition from medieval knights dressed in heavy full body armour to modern mounted soldiers carrying much lighter weaponry and almost no physical protection. Thus they make for one of the oldest kinds of cavalry and moreover one the most commonly known for the K.
The third aspect of the body technique horse-riding present in RG is such a historical-social embedding and its very specialized execution: the cavalry culture around the Jahrhundertwende era in German-speaking Austria during periods of active campaign. The protagonist Lerch, his superior Rittmeister Rofrano, some named Leutnant Graf Trautsohn, the privates and dragoons Holl, Wotrubek, Haindl and Scarmolin and many nameless soldiers know the ways in which to use their own bodies in conjunction with each other, horse bodies, tack, weapon, and landscape under the rules of their time, space, material and position.
This becomes most obvious when looking at riding in a group that is assembled by and for social authority: die Schwadron or die Eskadron, the squadron. This smallest unit of the cavalry usually contains two smaller units of about one hundred and twenty to two hundred riders each, and takes its name from being arranged in a square shape.
Alles was draussen ist
In RG, many different divisions and subdivisions of die Armee the army or die Legion the legion appear and act jointly or ride separately from each other. Numerous other terms contribute to the notion of bodies-together-in-motion in the military culture, such as der Korporal RG: 39 , the corporal—deriving from Latin corpus, body—or several expressions such as die Avantgarde RG: 39 , der Tete-Zug RG: 40 , die Queue RG: 41 or das Glied RG: 41, 47 , referring to the head, the length, the tail or the limbs of the squadron, showing how parts or the periphery of the body connect and move as one.
On several occasions, a deviation from the multipiece group accentuates its composition of many bodies. Parts come together or disperse throughout the story. It therefore seems as if all of the riding, moving, attacking, crossing, lining up and passing through happens in constant ramifications, and also in other shapes such as circles, chains and spirals, from umreiten RG: 40, 43 and einreiten RG: 40 to durchreiten RG: 41, 45 and durchgaloppieren RG: In short: the squadron rides in formation. This unity composed of a plurality of practices can be called corporate riding, which is explicit in the formulations used.
The climax of social authority within the cavalry lies in the physical discipline as the epitome, or rather the embodiment of body techniques. Docile, drilled human and equine bodies, as wholes and as interwoven parts ride in single or double file formation along streets and through skirmishes with trained strategies. Ultimately, this is the furthest this interpretation goes to unravel the historical and hands-on knots of this cultural technique. There is no quick cure to a limp caused by either loose or lost horseshoes. Reitkunst 27p. Besides knowing and caring for the individual horse, the rider also needs to consider the social qualities of his animal and how it interacts with its conspecifics in the troop, which is an aspect appearing in RG as well.
Once down to seventy-eight soldiers after their successful skirmish and the departure of an escort with bounty, they ride in rank, trekking one after the other nose to tail in a single-file or staggered, which is when Lerch and Brauner can abscond without disruptions see RG: This scene shows the sociability drive and the problem of preventing horses to cling to their conspecifics during treks or files—a common phenomenon in cavalry riding. This applies to either staying while the group moves away, as Lerch-Brauner experience it in Milan, or standing still in a group, as they do during the roll call with the Rittmeister later that day.
Here, the squadron is lined up two by two after an exciting day of victory, and the slightly restless riders laugh with each other. Auch standen die Pferde nicht ruhig, besonders diejenigen, zwischen denen fremde erbeutete Pferde eingeschoben waren. RG: 47 The transfer of unease from riders to horses—or rather between them—shifts the focus onto the communication of the two participants and therewith to the second point of this analysis: the equitation signals. Spurring on and immediately slowing down see RG: 44 produce a swinging rhythm for the riding dyad.
Das Alles lehrt ihm das Pferd. Reitkunst p. That means adapting its steps and speed to the ground conditions, to its umwelt, and ultimately to its own wellbeing. When Brauner reacts to the disappearing squadron, the rats or street dogs, and most importantly the slippery cobble stones, he practices Selbsttempo and his rider moves along. This leads to the third aspect of cavalry riding present in RG, the attention to the surface. Military missions lead horse and rider over a variety of urban and rural terrain. Lerch and Brauner differ from this ideal though and depart into a liminal zone around the perfect pace, when the horse drags through the village see RG: 43 and the rider drives it on with the spurs see RG: The manual mentions every single of the surface struggles Lerch and his gelding face in the village.
There is the cobble-stone pavement right when entering the area, which forces them to slow down into a walk and waste a lot of time passing through see RG: 43, Auf nicht ausgefahrenem Pflaster halte ich den gehaltenen Arbeitstrab, [ This can be tracked in the ethological aspects of the horses put to work by humans, the techniques and tools used to connect the involved parties, the riding dyads and the earthy terrain, and the horse shoes and street surface.
The horsemanship manual provides examples and explanations to analyze these threshold phenomena of riding in RG in a new context of CLAS and especially of CT theories. RG features such emerging thirds in various themes and formal structures: passages and bypasses, as well as the unique medium status of riding and its grammatical implications. Doors, thresholds and medians bring insights and outlooks, bode half-truths and near-deaths.
Even if the mount is not mentioned explicitly, it is perfectly clear that Lerch rode on a horse as part of his professional duties as a soldier. Brauner is introduced later as his rider gets off his back to control his horse shoes. Life and death are equally inexplicable see 75pp. Riding seems to be their medium of information exchange, their mode of movement, but even of existing in the world and experiencing it.
Equitation is the technique with which the two specimens of two different species communicate with each other and co-constitute each other. Many grammatical formulations90—despite the predominant use of Lerch and the respective personal pronoun er as grammatical subjects—override exclusive human agency. Every time Reiter is used it actually means the entity which emerges from a rider-horse-union.
It is in this emerging third practice of riding, which is created by the two and occurs between the two that Lerch and Brauner appear in the text world of RG. When the squadron crosses through the city of Milan during their campaign, their entrance is evidently characterized by the fact that they are cavalry, not infantry. The riders have a certain elevation and an awareness of their environment, the space around and beneath them; riding materializes their own world and thus their status in the world. The change from day to night is not a precise point in time, but a transition: evening can be considered a grammatical gerund and describes a liminal timespan.
In equitation, the two enmeshed agents move through time and space differently than they would by themselves, since the rhythms of their constantly connecting activity make aware of the uneven materiality of the earthy street surface and the uncertain edges of the evening time span. In moments when the temporal-spatial perception is overridden, riding contributes to creating a completely different reality.
The companions appear to be hovering under the sky rather than treading on the earth, and their vision is clouded from the dust raised by the other riders: they move along in a bubble of their own umwelt. He fantasizes about details of living with Vuic and her current lover, who he puts in the role of a friend, servant and petty criminal. He dreams of a comfortable, well-off civilian life, while his military world as a soldier in war is characterized by hours of patrolling through nothingness. The reason the rider can uninhibitedly muse is because Brauner trots along with the hungry, tired horses in the squadron, and the reason the animals trudge through the empty landscape is because the cavalrymen just sit in the saddles and do not ride with their horses.