Vast numbers of victims, mercilessness, cruelty and criminality motivated by the lowest impulses — such were the lengths to which the experimenters went. Biological experiments were carried out on human guinea pigs, chiefly Polish women, but also women of other nationalities, including mentally ill women Klimek, Most of them were subjected to several operations, some even as many as six times.
The following types of biological experiments were conducted:. The experiments were done to test the therapeutic properties of sulphonamide drugs and other medications, which were put into the infected wound. The blood vessels at both ends of the wound were constricted to prevent blood flow, which was to simulate the prevalent conditions in battlefield wounds. This was also why the infection was aggravated by having broken glass, sawdust, and pieces of fabric rubbed into the wound. Aseptic bone, muscle and neural operations. Their aim was to observe cell regeneration.
Neural operations involved the extraction of some of the nerves in the lower leg. Pseudo-medical experiments.
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At first these operations were performed in operating theatres in aseptic conditions. Later, when the women started to resist, operations were done forcibly. Victims were operated in their clothes and did not even have their legs washed. It has been estimated that out of the large number of Polish women who were victims of these experiments 3.
Many other completely unwarranted operations were carried out on human guinea pigs apart from these biological experiments, for instance resections of the stomach or removal of the thyroid gland. We know of cases of epileptics having the adrenal glands removed, and these glands being subsequently transplanted into bronchial asthmatics. Women were sterilised by having the middle part or the whole of their ovaries removed.
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Percival Trejte. The extreme attitude adopted by German doctors on biological experiments was an outcome of the Nazi principle that doctors had an absolute right to conduct experiments on prisoners whenever such experiments were justified by scientific or national interests. Under low pressure conditions disturbed behaviours were observed. Prisoners would tear out their hair, scratch their faces with their nails, beat their heads against the wall, or howl until they became unconscious.
When the pressure was increased prisoners were observed to undergo profound disturbances of consciousness. Those who survived the experiment suffered from severe shock and mental disorders due to cerebral haemorrhage. Autopsies were carried out on the victims, some of whom were still alive. Samples were removed from their brains, necks, lungs, sympathetic nervous system, liver, heart muscles, kidneys, and muscles from their limbs.
This material was then conserved. Lumps of ice would be put into the water to keep the temperature low. The experiment would last for anything up to 36 hours, or even more. Every hour they were doused down with cold water and their temperature was taken. These were the cruellest experiments conducted in Dachau, and most of the victims died. Only those individuals whose physical condition allowed them to have sexual intercourse were warmed up exceptionally fast and recovered their normal condition.
German Nazi doctors conducting pseudo-medical experiments. They were divided into five groups. Blood, urine, faeces, and saliva samples were taken every day. The effects of the experiment were very severe, but none of the victims died. Anopheles maculipennis mosquitos were bred in special cages and fed on flies. Quinine, and neosalvarsan were tested as treatments.
Over 2, victims, chiefly Polish Roman Catholic priests, were infected with the disease, and about of them died, many of them due to the toxic effects of antipyrine and pyramidon, which were administered to bring down fever, and of salvarsan, which caused acute yellow atrophy of the liver. Another type of experiment carried out concerned phlegmon. Many of the victims of these experiments died due to disseminated infection. Others developed abscesses on their entire body.
When victims were treated with sulphonamides healing was delayed, and muscular, cardiac, hepatic, renal and pulmonary dystrophy would be observed in post mortems.
There were other experiments connected with jaundice. The victims were operated. Experimental methods were used to treat prisoners suffering from tuberculosis. They were given calcium, codeine, pneumothorax treatment and other surgery. Some of them were kept in bed with no medications or additional food. Others received homeopathic treatment, and the remaining tuberculosis sufferers were told to take exercise, walks, and cold baths.
The number of prisoners subjected to these experiments is not known, but we do know that they were sent to the Hartheim gas chambers. Many prisoners paid with their lives for such experiments: not only were they blood donors, but they were shot solely for the purpose of allowing Nazi doctors to observe the effects of the medication. Some victims had limbs amputated, and blood vessels from them were transplanted into other victims. Several sterilisations were performed, but we have no further data on them. These figures are incomplete, as we do not have data on all the experiments.
The Nuremberg Code is as follows:. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.
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This latter element requires that before the acceptance of an affirmative decision by the experimental subjects there should be made known to them the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonable to be expected; and the effects upon their health or persons which may possibly come from their participation in the experiment. The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.
Saponins have been implicated as possible bioactive agent responsible for the aphrodisiac effect in Tribulus terrestris extract These saponins were found to increase the levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone It was reported that Tribulus alatus contained steroidal saponins 8 , which might contribute to increasing endogenous testosterone levels by raising the level of luteinizing hormones LH as reported for saponins isolated from T.
In the present study, the significant increase in the level of free serum testosterone is an indication of the aphrodisiac potential of Tribulus alatus extract. Also different fractions of both parts of the plant revealed significant increase in the level of free serum testosterone at dose It is concluded that Tribulus alatus extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity due to its androgen increasing property.
J Ethnopharmacol. Puri HS: Vegetable aphrodisiacs of India.
Q J Crude Drug Res. Hegnauer R: Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. J Clin Immunoassay. Life Sci. Norwood, Haworth Pr Inc. Arch Sex Behav.
Experiment Med. Correspondence to Dr. Accepted after revision: December 23, In this manuscript, the authors evaluated the effect of Tribulus alatus extracts on free serum testosterone in male rats. From these studies, the authors concluded that the alcoholic extract of the Tribulus alatus might thus be used to modify impaired sexual functions, especially those arising from hypotestosteronemia. The paper is very original and most part is carefully carried out.
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It presents some interesting observations. Male reproductive disorders and sexual dysfunction is a serious problem of recent society. In this respect the current paper deal with topical question of increasing incidences of male sexual dysfunction and potential risk of application of synthetic hormonal drugs. There is limited understanding in the literature on aphrodisiac effect of plants, namely, Tribulus on man and primates. The study is interesting and informative and adds to our knowledge about aphrodisiac properties of species belonging to genus Tribulus.
If you're really feeling frisky, Mintz recommends a kinkier toy that involves bondage or restraint of some kind to take things to another level if and only if both you and your partner are actually into it. Because porn is often associated with secrecy, an escape from the relationship to fulfill a fantasy, it gets a bad rap. But sex therapists explain that porn doesn't have to be something you hide from your partner. That said, if you're open or even a little bit interested, porn can be a fun and sexually arousing part of sexual relationships," says Sarah Hunter Murray , Ph.
To find porn that actually gets you in the mood instead of making you want to punch the screen, search for "feminist porn," Mintz suggests. Even though it's for entertainment purposes and meant to be exaggerated, it can still be some brainstorming material for trying new positions, styles, or whatever it may be. If it's watched in this way-as a creative inspiration for sex-with the acknowledgment that it isn't what real sex is, Mintz says, it can be great for conversation and arousal, both of which can help you have better sex.
It turns out meditation isn't reserved for just your yoga mat-it has a place in the bedroom too. Guys want you to stay focused so everyone can have the most pleasurable experience: just like you'd bring your mind back if it strays during a meditation class, the same applies here. Hunter Murray has a great sex tip for women to help you bring your mind back to your partner and squelch self-consciousness thoughts: "If your mind isn't in the moment, simply invite your attention back by focusing on your breath and the touch of your partner.
You can also practice by trying mindful masturbation on your own. Men feel emasculated, ashamed, and powerless when they go soft. So take this as a cue to shift gears and touch each other in places other than your genitals try these male erogenous zones you probably haven't heard of , or ask him to go down on you, suggests Mike Dow. Thanks for the Rx, doc!
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This is one sex tip for women we can definitely get behind. The more he senses you're liking it and that he's really pleasing you, the more likely his erection is to come back since he won't be thinking about himself. You can also have him watch you masturbate or you can bring out sex toys if you've used them together before. You may have heard that guys want their women to be more vocal and louder in bed, but it's not because he wants you to reenact his favorite porn scene.
Men complain that their partners aren't speaking up and that they're unsure if they're pleasuring you, Berman says. This is one piece of sex advice you'll hear over and over again, regardless of your gender or your partner's gender: Say something! And when you're not happy, don't stay mum. A lot of guys tell Dow that they want to know what they're doing wrong-but then they're pretty upset when they find out they're not the best lover in some ways.
Criticism will make a man defensive, Dow says, so phrase your sex tips positively. He recommends trying something such as, "I love it when you X and Y to me. It'd make me so hot if you'd Z.