Manual Guía de referencia de las Pautas de Accesibilidad al Contenido en la Web 1.0 (Spanish Edition)

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OWL Reference Japanese translation. Translator: Dorota Szwarc. Translator: Daniel Parafianowicz. Platform for Privacy Preferences 1. Az RDF tesztsorozata Hungarian translation. Ruby-Annotation German translation. Translator: Jens Meiert. Notacja ruby Polish translation. Translator: Jan Sudeikat.

Translator: Patrizia Andronico. Translator: Carine Bournez. SOAP-Version 1. Translator: Alo Clemens. Translator: Magdalena Kadubiec. Translator: Jean-Jacques Thomasson. Translator: Robin Smart. Translator: Koraljka Golub. Translator: Lars Ballieu Christensen. Richtlijnen voor de Toegankelijkheid van Web Content 1.

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Translator: Miente Bakker. Translator: Miki Ofuji. Translator: Karl Ove Hufthammer. Translator: Leonel Morgado. Pautas de Accesibilidad del Contenido en la Web 1. Translator: Johan Hjelm. Translator: FatCow Web Hosting team. Translator: Everaldo Bechara. Translators: Yunfeng Qiu , Dengfeng Yao. Lead Translation Organization: Danske Handicaporganisationer. Retningslinjer for tilgjengelig webinnhold WCAG 2. Pautas de Accesibilidad de Contenido Web 2. Translator: Daniele Gabriele. XHTML 1. Translators: Stefan Mintert , Judith Muhr. Translator: Manabu Sugai. Translator: Juan Luis Lara. Ausgabe German translation.

Translator: Johann de Beer. Translator: Fran Rosa i Soler. Translator: Willer Gomes Junior. Langage de balisage extensible XML 1. El lenguaje extensible de marcas XML 1. Translator: Fabio Arciniegas. Translator: Stefan Mintert. XML Base Catalan translation of an earlier version. XML Base French translation of an earlier version. XML Base German translation of an earlier version. XML Base Japanese translation of an earlier version.

XML Base Polish translation of an earlier version. XML Base Spanish translation of an earlier version. Translators: Yesenia Moreno , Pedro Silva. Zdarzenia XML Polish translation. Translator: Lionel Crine. XPointer element Scheme Korean translation. Schemat element w Xpointer Polish translation. Le cadre XPointer French translation. XPointer Framework Korean translation. XPointer-xmlns -Schema German translation. XPointer xmlns Scheme Korean translation. Schemat xmlns w Xpointer Polish translation. Translator: Oliver Becker. Translator: Jean-Marie Truelle.

Translator: Oscar Manrique. Translators: Jens Thiemann , Thomas Klute. Translator: Robert Filipowski. Translator: Luca Gabriele. Translator: Monica Cainarca. Translator: Takahiro Mashiko. Translator: Andrew Osobka. Translator: Gabriele Romanato. Translator: Andrea Crevola. Principios de independencia de dispositivos Spanish translation. Format Tanggal dan Waktu Indonesian translation.

Translator: Ade Hidayat. Translator: Sugimura Atsushi. Datos ir laiko formatai Lithuanian translation. Translator: Tadas Talaikis. Translator: Phil Fogliani. Translator: Daniele Florio. Translators: Rainer Wallbruch , Fabian Engstermann. Translator: Martin Alvarez Espinar. Translator: Joseph Plazo. Translator: Bagus adi Pratama. Tecniche per le Linee Guida 1. Translator: Giovanni Losacco.

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Translators: Xavier Agenjo , Francisca Hernandez. Translator: Daniel Vila Suero. Translator: Ivan Baldwin. Translator: Gunnar Bittersmann. Translator: Dirje Welry. Translator: Sorin Velescu. Translator: Csobanka Petra Petra Csobanka. Perte d'espace bidi French translation. Bidirektionaler Leerzeichenverlust German translation. Perdita di spazio Bidi Italian translation. Bidi- Pierdere de spatii Romanian translation. Polish translation. Translator: Sebastian Backstone. CSS3 y texto internacional Spanish translation.

Translator: Pierre Goiffon. Translator: Olle Olsson. Zeichencodierungen German translation. Teckenkodningar Swedish translation. Translator: Bartosz Matusiak. Translator: Alan Henrique Pardo de Carvalho. Codificarea caracterelor pentru incepatori Romanian translation.

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Translator: Claudiu Apetrei. Russian translation. Spanish translation. Ukrainian translation. Translator: Rafael Zanella. Einstellung der Zeichencodierungsangabe 'charset' in. Translators: Agata Bogacka , Natalia Fabisz. Setarea setului de caractere in. FAQ: Att ange 'charset'-information i. Translators: Andrew Osobka , Natalia Fabisz. Translator: Bikadi Zsolt Zsolt Bikadi. Formate pentru data Romanian translation.

Datumformat Swedish translation. Daty i czas Polish translation. Translator: Ana Backstone. Data si Ora Romanian translation. Fechas y horarios Spanish translation. Datum och tid Swedish translation. Capacitati de afisare Romanian translation. FAQ: Set di caratteri di un documento Italian translation.

Conjunto de caracteres do documento Portuguese translation. Setul de caractere in document Romanian translation. Translator: Echipa Traduceri W3. Set de caracteres para documentos Spanish translation. Sfaturi utile de internationalizare pentru Web Romanian translation. Ce que vous devez savoir au sujet du bidi et du balisage au sein des blocs French translation. Translator: Patrick Andries. Translators: Katerina Shechtman , Oleg Gaivoronsky.

Translator: Matheus Salmi. Site-uri internationale si multilinguale Romanian translation. Translator: Sun Yuanfu. Introducerea seturilor de caractere si a codificarilor Romanian translation. Estilos con el atributo lang Spanish translation. German translation. Hungarian translation. Einstellung der bevorzugten Sprachen im Browser German translation. FAQ: Establecimiento de las preferencias de idioma en un navegador Spanish translation. Translator: Carlos Iglesias Moro. Idiomas na Web Brazilian Portuguese translation.

Translator: wintranslations. Sprachangaben im Web German translation. A Nyelv a Weben Hungarian translation. Idiomas na Internet Portuguese translation. Limba pe Web Romanian translation. Los idiomas en la Web Spanish translation. Lokalisierung vs. Internationalisierung German translation. Lokalizacja versus internacjonalizacja Polish translation. Localizare vs. Internationalizare Romanian translation.

Lokalisering och internationalisering Swedish translation. Caracteres y glifos faltantes Spanish translation. Einsprachige vs. Site-uri Web monolinguale vs. Zeichencodierung bei mehrsprachigen Formularen German translation. Translator: Joildo Santos. Nicht-englische Tags German translation. SSS: İngilizce olmayan kod etiketleri Turkish translation. Ruby Polish translation. Ruby Russian translation. Ruby Spanish translation. Ruby Ukrainian translation.

Estilo y etiquetado de ruby Spanish translation. Translator: Andrei Stanescu. FAQ: Sortowanie rozwijanej listy Polish translation. Etiquetado de texto sin idioma Spanish translation. Zweibuchstabige oder dreibuchstabige Sprachcodes German translation.

Coduri de limba de doua sau trei litere Romanian translation. Uso de controles Unicode para texto bidi Spanish translation. Verwendung von b- und i-Elementen German translation. Cand sa folosim negocierea limbajului Romanian translation. Brazilian Portuguese translation. Wer verwendet Unicode? Cine foloseste Unicode? Romanian translation. Swedish translation. Translator: Ben Khoont. Translator: Association BrailleNet. Translator: Basil Algalez. Translator: Claudio Cattazzo. Translator: Reinaldo Ferraz. Contact opnemen met organisaties over ontoegankelijke websites Dutch translation. Translator: Nymphaea Notschaele.

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Pelan Pelaksanaan untuk Ketercapaian Web Malay translation. Translator: Vladimir Matejicek. Translator: Catherine Roy. Perkenalan akan Aksesibilitas Web Indonesian translation. Translator: Roy Sukamto. Pengenalan kepada Ketercapaian Web Malay translation. Translator: Andrzej Korasiak. Translator: Miguel Saturnino. Introducere in accesibilitatea web Romanian translation. Uvod v spletno dostopnost Slovenian translation. Translator: Ryan Wagner. Translator: Yeliz Yesilada. Translator: Mark Goeder-Tarant. Componentes Essenciais da Acessibilidade Web Portuguese translation.

Componente estentiale ale accesabilitatii internetului Romanian translation. Translator: Adrian Ciocalau. Componentes Interdependientes de Accesibilidad Web Spanish translation. W3C Flyer French translation. No translators specified W3C Flyer Greek translation. WAI Flyer Swedish translation. Translator: Leonardo Ariel Sanguinetti. Ang WCAG 2. Translator: Daniel Hillesheim. WCAG 2 en bref French translation. Translator: Yves Pratter. Translator: Jorge Fernandes. Preguntas frecuentes sobre las "Pautas de Accesibilidad al Contenido en la Web 1. Een website toegankelijk maken, waar te beginnen Dutch translation.

Translator: Henk Snetselaar. Premiers pas pour rendre un site Web accessible French translation. Translator: Henning Fischer. Cominciare: rendere accessibile un sito web Italian translation. Translator: Annalisa Cichella. Translator: Keisuke Nakao. Kom i gang: Korleis gjera ein nettstad tilgjengeleg Norwegian translation.

Translator: Nguyen Van Binh. Translator: Liron Eldar. Translator: Jacques du Plessis. Translator: Christian Reis. Guia breu per a crear llocs webs accessibles Catalan translation. Translator: Bert Bos. Translator: Marja-Riitta Koivunen. Translator: Daniel Dardailler. Translator: Santiago F. Translator: Rigo Wenning. Translator: Vinay P Jain. Institutional barriers to electronic commerce: An historical perspective. New Institutionalism Strategic Management, vol. Claycomb, C. Predicting the level of B2B e-commerce in industrial organizations.

Industrial Marketing Management, vol. Cloete, E. Electronic Journal on information systems in Developing countries, vol. Cronin, J. Journal of Marketing, vol. Czuchry, A. Are you in control of your ecommerce strategy?. Information Strategy, vol. Debreceny, R. New tools of the determination of e-commerce inhibitors. Decision Support Systems, vol. DeLone, W. Dedrick, J. China IT report. The Electronic Journal on information systems in Developing countries, vol. Dinesh, A. M y Jaideep, M. Journal of Computer Information Systems, vol. Eid, R. Evans, C. An E-Strategy for Online E-business. Information Systems Management, vol.

Gable, G. Enterprise systems success: a measurement model. Gebauer, J. Impact of the internet on procurement. Acquisition Review Quarterly, vol. George, D. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Gibbs, J. Environment and policy factors shaping global E-commerce diffusion: A cross-country comparison. Information Society, vol. Grewal, R. Hempel, P. B2B e-commerce in emerging economies: Imetal.

Journal of Strategic Information Systems, vol. Hong, W. Migrating to internet-based e-commerce: Factors affecting e-commerce adoption and migration at the firm level. Iivari, J. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, vol. Iron, J. Tax risks every e-commerce executive should know. Iver, K. Supply chain B2B e-commerce and time-based delivery performance.

Joseph, W. E-commerce Web site design: strategies and models. Kim, J. Reviews in Fisheries Science, vol. Landrum, H. Lefebvre, L. Technovation, vol. Liu, D. Business-to-business workflow interoperation based on process-views. Liu, C. Mata, F. J; Fuerst, W. Information Technology and sustained competitive advantage: A resource-based analysis.

Molla, A. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, vol. Miller, H. Information quality and market share in electronic commerce. Journal of Services Marketing, vol. Miller, J. MIS Quarterly, Marzo, Ngai, E. Rajkumar, T. E-procurement: Business and technical issues. Reichheld, F. E-Loyalty: your secret weapon on the web. Harvard Business School Press.

July-August, Soliman, K. Srivinasan, R. Sung, T. E-commerce critical success factors: East vs. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. Teo, S. Adopters and non-adopters of business-tobusiness electronic commerce in Singapore. Tsai, H. Emerging e-commerce development model for Taiwanese travel agencies. Tourism Management, vol. Wade, M. Wang, J. The World Economy, vol. Wareham, J. Critical themes in electronic commerce research: a meta-analysis. Journal of Information Technology, vol.

Webb, K. Managing channels of distribution in the age of electronic commerce. Zhu, K. Information Systems Research, vol. Electronic business adoption by European firms: A cross-country assessment of the facilitators and inhibitors. European Journal of Information Systems, vol. Moreover, technology convergence in ICT has received particular attention. ICT innovations diffuse into existing products and thus come to form a new integral part of the goods.

This is an exploratory research to examine technology convergence of the supply side as a firm level in the ICT sector using International Patent Classification IPC of 43, sample patents from to This study finds a degree of merger and relationships between different technology domains through the association rule mining of patent coclassification. This type of analysis helps companies to take strategies under the environment of technological trajectory change. Keyword: technological convergence; information and communication technology ICT ; patent; international patent classification IPC ; co-classification; association rule mining.

She holds a Ph. E-mail: eheekim chonnam. He received his Ph. E-mail: jaejonkim hotmail. His research interests are in the areas of virtual community, communities-of-practice, and knowledge management. E-mail: kjoon chonnam. Moreover, technology convergence has received particular attention. The creation of synergies, blurring of industry boundaries, integration, and overlapping of markets are all used to describe convergence.

The convergence phenomenon has been mainly observed and discussed in ICT sectors. Patents play an increasingly important role in innovation and patent data are used to indicate innovative activity of companies, industries and countries. Patent analysis can be regarded as one of the most effective methods to keep in touch with technology trends Karvonen and Kassi, This is an exploratory research to examine technology convergence of the supply side as a firm level in the ICT sector using patent analysis.

International Patent Classification IPC of 46, sample patents from to is employed to find a degree of merger and relationships between different technology fields through the association rule mining of patent co-classification. The paper is structured as follows: Section 2 outlines shortly the background of convergence and presents the use of patent analysis.

Section 3 presents the research setting, including research data and methodology. Section 4 indicates the empirical results. Finally, a discussion of this study and future research strands conclude this paper in Section 5. Ideas such as the creation of synergies, disappearance of industry boundaries, integration, or overlapping of markets, are all used to describe this phenomenon. Technological convergence is the tendency for different technological systems to evolve towards performing similar tasks Wikipedia. Convergence can refer to previously separate technologies such as voices, data and videos that now share resources and interact with each other, synergistically creating new efficiencies.

The phenomenon of convergence occurs when innovations emerge at the intersection of established and clearly defined industry boundaries, thereby sparking off an evolutionary development with a much broader impact. In recent industry developments within information technology IT , bio-technology BT and nano-technology NT , the convergence of technologies and knowledge bases has induced a variety of industrial points of inflection.

Hence, industry boundaries have become blurred, and innovation does not take place within previously existing industrial silos anymore, but rather between them Hacklin et al. The first use of the term convergence can be traced back to Rosenberg who introduced the label.

According to a study Greenstein and Khanna , it is possible to define two basic forms of convergence as substitutes and complements. Studies of Hacklin and Hacklin et al developed and discussed a process of four sequential convergence stages, which are knowledge, technology, application and industry convergence, with an evolutionary perspective.

Starting with scientific disciplines that begin to use more and more research results of one another, a scientific convergence will start with cross-disciplinary citations and eventually develop further into closer research collaborations. After the distance between basic science areas has been decreasing for some time, applied science and technology development should follow leading to technology convergence Meyer, ; Murray, ; Bainbridge, Pennings and Puranam argued that based on a validity assumption for classification schemes like the IPC International Patent Classification , convergence can be found in patent data through growing overlapping among IPCs and through an increase in patent citations between different classes.

Curran and Leker ; discussed convergence indicators using patent data. Also Xing and et al tried to measure industry convergence with input-out analysis. Data mining, which is referred to as a knowledge discovery in a database, is a process of nontrivial extraction of implicit previously unknown and potentially useful information such as knowledge rules, constraints and regularities from data in a database Chen et al.

Data mining, which differs from traditional statistics in that formal statistical inference, is assumption-driven in the sense that a hypothesis is formed and validated against the data. Data mining, in contrast, is discovery-driven in the sense that patterns and hypotheses are automatically extracted from data Zhang and Zhang, Data mining has made broad and significant. Today, data mining is used in a vast array of areas, and numerous commercial mining systems are available Han et al.

Association mining is one of the best-studied methods in data mining Agrawal et al. Since its introduction in Agrawal et al. Association rule mining has been developed mainly to identify the relationships strongly associated among item sets that have high frequency and strong correlation.

Association rules are produced by finding the interesting associations or correlation relationships among a large set of data items Jiao and Zhang, , and enable us to detect the items that frequently occur together in an application Zhang and Zhang, An association rule Agrawal et al. The intuitive meaning of such a rule is that the transactions or tuples that contain itemset A also tend to contain itemset B.

An association rule indicates that the occurrence of a certain itemset in a transaction will imply the occurrence of another itemset in the same transaction. The rule suggests that a strong relationship exists between the itemsets. The association analysis is applicable to market basket data, bioinformatics, medical diagnosis, Web mining, and scientific data analysis Tan et al. The importance of a rule is usually measured by two numbers, support and confidence. These two properties provide the empirical basis for derivation of the inference expressed in the rule and a measure of the interest in the rule.

Association rule mining finds all rules in the database that satisfy some minimum support and minimum confidence constraints Agrawal and Srikant Additionally, lift value Brin et al. A lift ratio greater than 1. The larger the lift ratio, the greater the strength of the association Kim and Park, In this study an itemset is regarded as a set which includes primary patent classification code and secondary patent classification codes of a patent, and a transaction means granting a patent. A patent has its classification code, which indicates its technology area.

Patent information includes one primary classification code and additionally second classification codes. The patent co-classification shows clearly convergence between different technological domains Curran and Leker, In this research, the association rule mining is applied to discover the linkage patterns, which show strongly related among various technology areas, based on the patent coclassification information. The International Patent Classification IPC provides for a hierarchical system of language independent symbols for the classification of patents and utility models according to the different areas of technology to which they pertain WIPO.

Each patent grant is assigned to IPC to determine the nature of the patent. One patent can be assigned to more than one IPC if the patent finds application in various domains. Each company has a few subclasses to which most of their patents are assigned. These subclasses describe their core technological competencies.

If a company has granted patents only in a few subclasses, it can be said that the technologies employed by the company are highly focused on a narrow field of expertise. On the other hand, if all the patents are not concentrated in a few subclasses, research can be said to be diversified. Patent application in each field indicates an accumulation of knowledge and advancement in the technological trajectory Fai and Tunzelmann, IPC codes are a hierarchical way of assigning the category to which every patent belongs.

There are 8 sections, classes, subclasses and about 70, groups. The subclasses are aggregated into 35 technological fields, and for descriptive purposes these are further aggregated into five main categories: electrical engineering, instruments, chemistry, mechanical engineering and others, and 35 sub categories in the appendix, the IPC and Technology Concordance Table WIPO, The subclasses of the sample patents are analyzed using association rule mining in this research. Among the 43, sample patents used for this analysis, 13, patents were assigned to more than one IPC..

Thresholds for mining this dataset are 0. The lift values of all association rules as the results of the association rule mining are greater than 1. The table 1 shows the IPC statistics of the sample patent dataset. In this study, the conditions for association rule mining of IPC co-classification, minimum support is 0. Support value to detect association rules is related to the frequency of occurrence. The main purpose of this study is to examine the technological convergence in a patent using its IPC coclassification.

And others are dispersed into more than different subclasses. In order to detect the association rules between different technology subclasses, the minimum support value should be lowered in this study. Table 2 shows the results of association rule mining for co-classification of the IPC dataset.

The association rules detected from the patent dataset shows clearly the relationships between different fields of technology. The 32 association rules can be interpreted based on the concordance. The detected 32 association rules can be divided into five types. Second, the association rules from 18 to 26 show the technological combinations between electrical engineering and instrument. Third, the association rule 27 indicates the technological integration among three domains: electrical engineering, instruments, and mechanical engineering fields.

Fourth, the association rules 28, 29, and 30 show the technological combinations between electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. Table 1. Electrical engineering II. Instruments III. Chemistry IV. Mechanical engineering. Technological convergence can trigger market convergence with new product and firms begin to merge with each other, completing the convergence process with industry fusion, considering sequential process of convergence.

The context of this study is the ICT technology convergence in a firm level as a technology supplier, considering degree and scope of technology convergence. However, the results do not indicate the technological convergence change technological paradigm in a firm level. As discussed in previous literature Curran and Leker, , convergence starts with knowledge convergence. Additionally, this study examines the usefulness of association rule mining to indicate technological convergence. Due to the technology development, new phenomena have appeared in the world.

Some of them can be difficult to be described or analyzed by conventional methods. The association rule mining approach is appropriate for describing the complicate relational data and discovering important patterns among them. The association rule mining analysis can be applied to indicate not only technology convergence but also knowledge convergence.

Technological convergence, as an emerging research field, is being studied by many scholars.

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The impact of this new phenomenon is enormous. For example, after introducing the smartphone which is a representative outcome of the convergence, lots of new business models and applications related to the smartphone have appeared, and our life style has changed rapidly. In order to improve the capability of forecasting the technology development, in-depth understanding of the technological convergence phenomenon is essential.

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Even though, in this research, one factor, which is classification code of patent, is considered to discuss technological convergence, knowledge transfer with a perspective of open innovation can be deliberated together using the mining analysis. Therefore, the empirical analysis about the relationship between technology convergence and knowledge will be discussed in a further study. Agrawal, R. Bainbridge, W. Brin, S. Curran, C. Duysters, G.

Ernst, H. Fai, F. Gambardella, A. Hacklin, F. Han, J. Morgan kaufmann. Jiao, J. Karvonen, M. Kim, E. Meyer, M. Lind, J. Murray, F. Pennings, J. Rosenberg, N. Stieglitz, N. Tan, P. Kumar, V. Wing, W. Definition for energy technology Solar energy includes solar photovoltaic power and solar thermal power. Travassos Paulo S. The methodology was developed to identify and evaluate the production process in an assembly company and to apply the process FMEA to evaluate potential faults and propose improvement actions for the use of RFID technology.

In this study, the viability of RFID technology for inventory control and traceability of the product was confirmed. Among the benefits obtained were the reduction of one of the workers from the inventory team, reduction in the costs of substituting a component, and reduction in lead-time. Frederico has an MSc from Senai Cimatec.

Adress: Av. Phone: His research interests are Numerical Modeling and Industrial Engineering. Near-real-time tracking and tracing capabilities, together with item-level identification through EPC electronic product code standard, would allow a host of new improvements in inventory management Whang, Among these improvements is increased efficiency by making products available at the right time and in the right place, with a lower operational cost. As a result, numerous manufacturing plants are adopting RFID technology for product tracking purposes, especially within sectors that move multiple parts through their facilities each day Chow et al.

According to Soares et al. The benefits with its implementation go far beyond the mere change of the technology of automation of data capture. Its main objective is to increase the integration of the entire logistics chain, providing tools that enable tracking and control of the products that circulate in the chain Fosso Wamba and Chatfield, This group of companies is comprised of 20 assemblers of microcomputers.

The raw materials are practically all imported from Asian suppliers China, South Korea and Thailand, among others and the companies supply the Brazilian market, specially the north and northeast regions of the country. The difficulties faced by these companies in managing their inventories of raw materials and finished products, even using barcodes for quick identification during production, were the motivational factor behind this study.

These difficulties motivated the development of the methodology of integration presented here. In such cases, the company frequently substituted the missing component s for a component of higher value. This might create a discrepancy between the inventory control system database and the actual inventory. RFID may help, in this case, by identifying and tracking all items contained in a product. Such method was performed in the company being studied.

It is noteworthy that no other company in the region possesses this technology. RFID technology presents some advantages when compared to the barcode technology, previously used in the company. The method used to read the RFID tags enables them to be read at great speed compared to the barcode. The reading of an RFID tag does not depend on the line-of-sight requirement, and it can be reutilized or operated in hazardous environments or environments contaminated by dirt. The reutilization process is simple. It is just necessary to remove the used tags from the items and reattach them to new items.

This paper outlines the activities that were undertaken by a Brazilian microcomputer assembly company while implementing RFID technology. We explore the steps taken by the firm and outline where the company met its expectations or not. The microcomputer industry relies heavily on logistical techniques and inventory management, moving many parts throughout their system, received from multiple suppliers.

As such, we believe our analysis can be useful for other firms hoping to use RFID technology to reduce their systematic inefficiencies. The cost of the tag is a problem to be faced, but it is not insurmountable. Tag prices tend to reduce over time and tags can be reutilized. The innovative side of this research is the creation of a methodology for the integration of the RFID technology into the productive system of a company, to enable the adoption of such technology in companies that aim to increase and improve inventory control and product traceability.

It is important to point out that this methodology aims to reduce potential impacts on the structure of the company, in order to facilitate integration. FMEA is used to identify the process failures, which might compromise the integration of the new system with the previous system. Other benefits inherent to the utilization of this technology were observed: reduction in lead-time, reduction of failures in the process and reduction of defects since it became possible to identify and trace problems before the product was sent to customers.

Such benefits were enabled due to the real time control, the capacity to read many tags at the same time, and the suppression of the manual reading of barcodes. RFID technology. A signal is sent to a tag, which is activated and reflects back the signal passive system or transmits its own signal active system. According to Pinheiro , the considerable advances of RFID technology are undeniable, however many challenges remain in order to enable its widespread use. These challenges can be perceived by the analysis of applications for the RFID gadgets.

For some applications, the technology is reasonably consolidated, while for others there is still a need of new gadgets, security protocols and reductions in the price of tags. In this section, a literature review is presented, with a list of advantages and disadvantages of RFID technology. Such factors were taken into consideration when the company decided to implement RFID technology.

Advantages of the use of RFID technology In a multitude of industrial contexts, implementing RFID technology has shown to improve operations, supply chain and logistical systems by reducing forecasting errors and increasing delivery times Dutta et al. The use of RFID technology seems particularly useful within fast moving consumer goods markets, since it allows for real-time visibility of the supply chain Bottani et al. Higher material transparency within organizational systems allows for more accurate forecasting, effectively reducing any inefficiencies that may exist within the supply chain Delen et al.

RFID can also be beneficial in managing supply chains. Relying on an increasingly large number of suppliers can make the information flow across all parties difficult. RFID tags and the technology behind them allow for rapid automated item identification without the need of a physical operator, increasing inventory allocation efficiencies. Through the provision of real-time data, RFID technology helps in systematically reducing information gaps across the supply chain. It prevents items from being lost, since they are tracked continuously as they move through the chain, and enables inventory control, since the company knows exactly what is contained in its inventory, in real time Attaran ; Gaukler et al.

To begin with, there are costs and capital requirements for implementing the physical technology and software needed for RFID Ustundag and Tanyas Second, there are cases that suggest how RFID may not be so effective and other cases where the implementation of the system was not successful Kharif Additionally, lack of timing and technology coordination between suppliers when implementing RFID practices can create problems across the supply streams Whang When to implement RFID technology is an important question facing many practitioners and researchers alike Kach and Borzabad In relation to the problem identified in the case study, the main advantages and disadvantages hold the premise that the technology can be implemented; however, it is necessary to identify the process failures, which might compromise the integration with the previous system.

This was done by applying FMEA. Therefore, in order to enable the integration process, it is necessary to identify the process failures listed below in item 3 so that they be evaluated, eliminated or in the worst scenario, minimized. FMEA was one of the first systematic techniques for failure analysis.

It was developed by reliability engineers in the s to study problems that might arise from malfunctions of military systems. An FMEA is often the first step of a system reliability study. It involves reviewing as many components, assemblies, and subsystems as possible to identify failure modes, and their causes and effects Santos and Cabral, Among the many tools used for fault analysis Ishikawa diagram, Fault Tree Analysis, Pareto Chart, 5 Whys, Quality Control story, among others , FMEA was the most adequate for the company, because the use of this methodology shows the process systematically, aggregates more information in the descriptions of the process and identifies causes of faults in the process of microcomputer assembly Santos and Cabral, It involves reviewing as many components, assemblies, and subsystems as possible to identify failure modes, and their causes and effects.

For each component, the failure modes and their resulting effects on the rest of the system are recorded in a specific FMEA worksheet. There are numerous variations of such worksheets. An FMEA is mainly a qualitative analysis According to Stamatis , the factors, severity, occurrence and detection are calculated by experts according to the scale of values, which in most cases is set from 1 to 10, based on criteria of evaluation defined in common agreement by the team. The RPN Risk Priority Number is a measure of risk of a fault in a certain step of the process, and should be used to classify faults and prioritize the actions.

Actions are recommended with priority given to those faults that achieved the highest RPN. Using this concept, a methodology was developed to integrate RFID technology into the supply chain of the microcomputer assembly company, which will be presented below. This methodology has not been tested before. This was the first attempt to systematize it. In the global market, there are still many microcomputer companies that still have not made use of RFID technology. These companies could benefit from its many advantages, as listed in section 5.

Figure 1 presents the flowchart of the methodology that was developed, detailing each step of the technical viability analysis. It reports the procedures that guided the case study in the company which will be named XYZ for confidentiality purposes. This company was chosen because it had all the limitations and characteristics of other companies of the region, as mentioned previously. Even though the methodology contemplates a return on investment analysis, this step will not be presented in this paper for brevity purposes.

For other papers focusing on economic feasibility, check Balocco et al. The problem of the tag price was minimized by choosing an economically feasible tag and by reutilizing the tags as much as possible. Describe the Manuf. Description and evaluation of the process In this section, a description of the factory of company XYZ will be presented, together with a description of the microcomputer assembly process from the receipt of raw materials to the checkout of finished products.

The company has a flexible assembly line, which manufactures 5 desktop models and 1 laptop model. The monthly production of the factory is approximately 12 thousand machines. The factory has a total area of m2, with a production area of m2. Around , machines will be traced and tracked. For details on costs, please refer to Araujo Filho et al. We assumed that all the equipment would be tagged. Description of the Process of Receiving Supplies The process of receiving supplies is initiated with the arrival of the product in the inventory sector.

A worker checks the data on the invoice and the data in the request for parts. After the checking of documents, a physical checking of the products is performed, as well as a checking of the packaging and possible damages caused by transportation. When the new process is initiated, the components will receive an RFID tag when they are first inspected.

All the checking data are registered in the stamp of inspection and acceptance. In case there is no problem with the material, either physical or documental, it is taken into the inventory. If there is a problem, a communication to the Board of Directors of the company is performed, which in turn will decide if the goods will be given back to the supplier or if they will be accepted into the inventory. After the goods are put into the inventory, barcodes are generated and printed for the components. Just after the printing of barcodes, they are attached to the components and read by an optical reader, so that the information enters the Integrated Enterprise Control System IECS.

Finally, the components are stored in the inventory. Description of the Process of Computer Assembly The process of computer assembly is initiated with the generation of a sales order SO by the ERP system of the sales team located in the southeast of the country. Therefore, the factory is obliged to feed the system manually because there is no integration between databases. This was changed radically with the new process.

Once the RFID began to be used, the factory fed the system automatically by using new software that was integrated with the existing system. In case a few items are not in the inventory, they are substituted for equivalent or superior items. In this phase, the barcodes for the power supply unit and for the lot of products serial number are generated.

The RFID tags will help in this phase because it will be possible to know exactly what is in stock. After this phase, the PO is printed and taken to the inventory team. Once the RFID system is used, all the parts will arrive already with their tags. The cases and power supply units are taken to the Case Preparation sector which also attaches the power supply unit.

In this stage, the motherboard, processor, cooler and memory are attached. The inspection process uses software to determine the condition of the parts. In case the machine is approved, it is made available on the rack for run in. If it is reproved, it is taken to be repaired. Once the new process is implemented, RFID tags will be attached individually to groups of similar components, as described in section 4.

The tags did perform well with parts made of metal. After the approval in the assembly line, the machines are made available to run. In this stage, the Operational System OS is installed and a fatigue test is performed. The next step is the final test for the machine. In this test, both hardware and software are tested. In the end of this step the machine is packaged together with a keyboard, loudspeakers, a mouse, manuals, CD of drivers and the label with its serial number is attached to the box. The machine is then put on the pallet.

The pallets are stored in the inventory. When an invoice is generated, the inventory team ties via barcode [BC] reader the serial number of the machine to the invoice using the software system provided. As mentioned previously, once the new process begins, RFID tags will be attached to groups of similar components during the initial inspection. The results of the use of RFID tags are discussed in the final section. Description of the process of Generating an Invoice for a Sales Request The process of generating an invoice for a sales request initiates with the sales request by the ERP system.

The inventory team releases the serial number of the machines, which are on the pallet to compose the amount of machines requested in the sales invoice. After the machines are chosen, the sales invoice is created and the inventory team makes pallets available for removal, by manually checking the invoice numbers with the labels in the machines.

Once the new process is initiated, the pallets will receive RFID tags and will be associated to the computers. The most important results of this work were the possibility of evidencing the potential fault modes, their causes and the alternatives to prevent the occurrence of faults. The methodology is applied by filling the FMEA form and analyzing it.

In order to fill the FMEA form, the team followed the steps explained in section 3. On the FMEA form, 50 types of operations were identified. Seven of these operations 1, 11, 28, 30, 31, 34 and 43 were the ones with the highest RPN, according to Table 1 below:. Reading error of BC of Delay in the parent serial Raw material release of 34 number to set 7 entry invoice with the amount of the machines machines on the invoice. Real Time Inventory: There were faults due to unavailability of components in the inventory, caused by imprecise control of raw materials.

It was also found that the inventory of parts and finished products was performed once a year, and demanded 3 days to be executed. This happened because some steps of the inventory checking were performed manually and the results were compared with the values found in the ERP system. Therefore, real time inventory is recommended for the company. Substitution of Barcodes for RFID: During the stages of KIT preparation, packaging, generation of invoice and acquisition of raw materials, a series of faults in the reading of barcodes was found.

It happened with both the components and the parent serial number of the machines. Even though the RFID tag may be expensive in relation to the cost of the items, they can be used many times recycled , so their cost is reduced. The human cost for the process of attaching the tags to the body of the components was not calculated. For a more detailed analysis of the procedures, check Araujo Filho, Travassos and Figueiredo Measurements and tests In this section, we will explain the steps of the technical viability analysis.

The first subsection presents the selection of the RFID equipment. The second subsection presents the analysis performed in the environment to detect electromagnetic noise site survey , at the points where the RFID equipment were to be installed. Reading tests were then performed with the preselected list of available tags, antennas and tag readers. We tested most of the components available in the Brazilian market, but we do not show them here for brevity purposes.

The tags were put on components, on the computer case and on the packaging box and the tests were performed. This equipment had already been tested and proved to be cost efficient and reliable. However, a more detailed analysis was not performed. The choice of tag, however, was performed considering technical and economical criteria. A list of nine tags covering the major types available on the market was analyzed and a series of specifications were considered to enable the choice of the most adequate one, both in terms of performance and in terms of cost.

Among such criteria were cost, dimensions, distance for reading, memory size, mounting type, among others. With such criteria in hand, it was possible to determine which tags were a viable alternative for components and for the packaging box. A pre-selection was made. Table 2 presents the kinds of tags that were tested. Performance tests were done in a sequence.

Deavours et al. The test consists in adjusting the power of the reader to the maximum position, and making reading attempts with the tag from a fixed distance. In order to simulate other distances, the power of the reader should be attenuated by 0. The rate of response is the number of successful readings divided by the reading trials. All these tests were performed in the microelectronics lab. We believe that our choice of tag was the best considering the availability in the market. The tag can be affixed to all parts including the RAM memory.

To ensure more reliability from results, 4 experiments were run for each tag, totaling 10, reading attempts. Readings were successful with metal parts and with the closed computer case. Site Survey According to Sweeney II , in order to perform a site survey it is necessary to follow these steps: 1. Define the reading places or areas of inquiry where the RFID system will be installed. These locations vary from store to store and require a power outlet and Ethernet connectivity for readers unless you have players with wireless connectivity. Commonly, the RFID interrogation zones are placed on doors, assembly lines and racks of inventory; 2.

Carry out site survey in local reading respecting all the business process cycle 24h or 48h. It is usually held on days of normal operation of the company, respecting all hours of operation. Perform the static capture. To perform the static capture, you must configure the equipment as follows: a. Place the half-wave antenna attached directly to the tripod so that the center of the antenna is in the center of the target area; b. Connect the antenna to the input port of the spectrum analyzer via coaxial cable ;. Connect the laptop to the spectrum analyzer, using an RS connector or Ethernet.

If you use a laptop to record data, you must configure the virtual display to record the information every time and save it on your hard disk. Set the spectrum analyzer for the operating frequency to be used with the RFID system; 4. Perform Itinerant Capture. To perform the itinerant capture, you must configure the equipment as follows: a.

String Resources

Set the spectrum analyzer exactly the same way as configured in static capturing, except for the voltage source and the antenna that should be mobile; b. If any source of interference is found, its exact location must be identified. Map the areas of interrogation in the project, locating sources of interference. Site Survey at XYZ The site survey was performed in the areas of interrogation, according to Figure 3, on the places where the KIT preparation Figure 4 , generation of invoice Figure 5 and entry of raw materials occur Figure 6.

For the static capture, images from the spectrum analyzer were recorded every 2 hours in each place, with a cycle of 24 hours beginning at until of the next day. However, the last record of each place corresponded to the period between of the last day until of the following day, because the company did not have any activity after regular working hours. This was performed inside the company. We identified some areas of frequency spectra of interrogation, but all spectra were outside the working range of the UHF Ultra High Frequency. For the itinerant capture, no spectrum in the range of to Tests in the Product After the site survey tests, in-place tests were performed.

Through the information contained in the invoice launched in the ERP system, data will be associated for later traceability. At this point, the components will be credited into the system, releasing them for use if necessary. At this time, the separate components are read by the RFID Collector and receive the status of Booked, which means that these components can be used at any time.

RFID tags are linked to the Production Order, whose number is also associated with the handling of components, ensuring the association of Finished Goods and Components. At this point, the confirmation of the RFID reading of the finished product will change the status of components used from Debited to Reserved, generating the debt of the component in the inventory system, while a credit of finished product will be held in it. Validation tests performed Validation tests Validation tests performed Validation tests performed Validation tests performed Validation tests Validation tests.

RFID technology was so efficient in relation to the previous technology barcode that the time required to read a pallet in the process of generating an invoice was reduced from ninety seconds to seven seconds on average. These time savings are equivalent to the work of one employee Araujo Filho, Travassos and Figueiredo, This can be measured because the company knows the amount of parts that were substituted in the past.

There were, however, difficulties and challenges in the implementation of the new technology. The different areas of production were arranged in a way that made difficult the installation of the RFID portal, the training of workers demanded a lot of attention and care, and the integration of the RFID system with the ERP system demanded a lot of time.

In this paper, it was evidenced that the methodology for implementation of RFID technology on microcomputer assembly companies was viable. It was also observed that the utilization of the FMEA tool for identification and elimination of causes of failure modes in the production process was efficient Araujo Filho, Travassos and Figueiredo, The tool details the process systematically and adds more information to the process descriptions.

It also identifies the causes of failures in the production process. The difference between the process before and after the FMEA tool being implemented is that the most important failure modes are taken care of, with preventive measures being taken in order to avoid the failures. Another important point were the technical evaluations performed for tag selection, choice of RFID equipment, analysis of the environment and for detecting electromagnetic noises present in the factory.

Such evaluations helped to ensure the technical efficacy of the chosen technology, during in-site tests. A good RFID reading was obtained at all points where data was collected. The technology was so efficient compared with the previous technology barcodes that the time required to read a pallet in the process of generating an invoice was reduced from ninety seconds to seven seconds on average. It is important to point out that there are other significant gains inherent to the use of RFID technology, which are, however, difficult to measure Araujo Filho, Travassos and Figueiredo, Such gains are shared by the entire commodity chain, because with real time inventory control the suppliers of this company will be able to monitor the flow of parts and ensure that their customer the company will have its needs fulfilled.

This real time monitoring between supplier and company is replicated in the remaining links of the chain, which ensures better service quality to the end consumer, and reduction of logistical and operational costs. In such a condition, the component can be tracked from the first supplier to the end consumer Fosso Wamba and Chatfield, Additionally, there is a need to conduct more in-depth research into the isolated impact of RFID technology in comparison to the change in management and process redesign that it generates.

One key limitation of this research is the case study approach based on a single case. Hopefully, the experience and lessons learned from this case study can be shared with the readers, and they will be beneficial to those organizations that are contemplating the implementation of RFID systems. Balocco, R. Supply Chain Management: an International Journal, 16 5 , p. Bottani, E. Montanari and A. Chow, H. Choy, W. Lee and K. Delen, D. Hardgrave and R. Dutta, A. Lee and S. Deavours, D. Chatfield "A contingency model for creating value from RFID supply chain network projects in logistics and manufacturing environments," European Journal of Information Systems, vol.

Gaukler, G. Seifert and W. Ozer, W. Hausman Heinrich, C. Wiley Publishing, Indianapolis. Hunt, V. Jones, E. The Engineering Economist. Kach, A. International Journal of Management, Kharif, O. Pinheiro, J. Rausand M. Wiley Series in probability and statistics - second edition page Santos, F. Soares, R. Stamatis, D. Stambaugh, C. Strategic Finance Vol. Sweeney II, P. Wiley Publishing Inc. Taghaboni-Dutta, F. Ustundag, A. Whang, S. Wu, N. Nystrom, T. Lin and H.

Yu However, the usage of the digital channel can get obstructed by different variables where the usability of the service plays an important role. This research presents a usability evaluation of 60 online services offered by the Chilean government. Following a heuristic evaluation model, we conducted a diagnosis and propose lines of improvement to the problems detected. The evaluation showed that the online services do not offer enough control to users, the services cause uncertainty while interacting with them, and there is not enough guidance to users during relevant steps of the interaction.

Director y editor de la revista de experiencia de usuario Faz: www.