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We followed the ascending ridge of the mountain range for over thirty leagues, and in all that distance and in three hundred more leagues that we travelled we never found a mouthful of bread, and seldom water. We came across some herbs, small game, and stray roots which kept life in us, and now and then a stray Indian, who fled from us. We had to kill one of our horses to make dried meat, but found he was only skin and bone ; and thus, plodding slowly on, we killed the other two, and crawled along, unable to stand.

We reached a district so cold that we were frozen. We sighted two men leaning against a rock, and we rejoiced ; we advanced, hailing them, and asking what they were doing there : they made no reply. We came to where they 44 - IVe all three journeyed together. We pushed forward, and on the third night drew up close to a rock. One of us could hold out no longer, and died. The two of us kept on, and next day, at about four in the afternoon, my companion could go no further, and dropped down sobbing, and died. I found eight pesos in his pocket, and went blindly on my way, carry- ing my harquebus and the slab of dried meat that was over, and expecting the same end as my comrades.

Weary, shoeless, my feet raw, my woeful state may be imagined! I propped myself up against a tree, and for the first time, I think wept. I said the rosary, com- mending myself to the Most Blessed Virgin and to the glorious St. Joseph, her Spouse. I rested a little, and rising again, set out on the march ; and it seems that I must have left the kingdom of Chile behind and reached that of Tucuman, as I observed the change of tem- perature.

I tramped on, and next morning, while lying down, exhausted with fatigue and hunger, I 45 saw two mounted men coming towards me. I could not tell whether to lament or rejoice, not knowing whether they were savages or friendlies. I loaded my harquebus, but could not lift it. They rode up, and asked what brought me to that lonely spot. I perceived that they were Christians, and saw the heavens open. I told them I had lost my way and knew not where I was, that I was worn out and dying of hunger, and too weak to rise.

They were grieved at the sight of me, dismounted, gave me to eat of what they had, lifted me on to a horse, and led me to a farm three leagues away, where they said their mistress lived, and we arrived there at about five in the afternoon. The lady was a half-breed, the daughter of a Spaniard and an Indian woman. She was a widow, a good-natured soul, who seeing me and hearing of my calamity and misery, took pity on me and received me kindly.

She com- passionately had me placed in a comfortable bed, gave me a good supper, and let me rest and sleep ; and this set me up again. Next morning she gave me a good breakfast, and, 46 seeing my destitution, gave me a neat cloth suit and continued treating me very well and entertaining me handsomely. She was well- to-do, and had vast herds and flocks ; and as, apparently, few Spaniards ever pass that way, it seems that she cast her eye on me for her daughter.

After I had been there a week the kind- hearted woman told me that I might stay on to manage her household. I was most grate- ful for the kindness she showed me in my forlorn condition, and promised to serve her as best I could. A few days later she gave me to understand that she would be willing for me to marry a daughter of hers who lived there with her, and who was very black and as ugly as the devil the very opposite of my taste, which has always been for pretty faces. I vowed myself enchanted at a condescension so undeserved, and fell at her feet, declaring that she might command me as a creature of hers snatched from destruction.

I continued to serve her to the best of my powers. She dressed me out like a beau, and confidingly entrusted me with her house and belongings. Another experience of the same sort befell me at this time in Tucuman. During the two months I spent there befooling my Indian I chanced to strike up a friendship with the Bishop's secretary, who made much of me, and took me several times to his house, where we gambled ; and here I made acquaintance with Don Antonio de Cervantes, canon of the cathedral there, and Vicar -General of the Bishop.

He likewise took a fancy to me, courted me, flattered me, invited me to dinner several times, and finally managed to unbosom himself, saying that he had a niece at home a girl of my age, of most striking attractions, and with a good dowry and that, as I had made a favourable impression on her, he had determined to marry her to me. I avowed myself to be most grateful for his kindness and gracious intentions.

I saw the wench and liked 48 the look of her, and she sent me a suit of fine velvet, twelve shirts, six pairs of breeches of Rouen cloth, some Dutch linen collars, a dozen handkerchiefs, and two hundred pesos in a bowl : this was a gift, an act of courtesy, without prejudice to the dowry.

I received it very thankfully, and wrote the best acknow- ledgement I could, saying that I looked for- ward to kissing her hand and placing myself at her feet. I hid as much as I could from the Indian, and, for the rest, I gave her to under- stand that it was in honour of my marriage with her daughter whom that gentleman knew all about, and inasmuch as I was so well inclined to her greatly esteemed. The affair had got to this point when I doubled the Cape and vanished : and I have never heard what became of the negress and the Vicaress- General.

I had not got far when, to my joy, I fell in with a soldier who was going the same way, and we travelled together. A little further on three men, wearing caps and armed with muskets, bounced out of some roadside huts, demanding all we had. We could not get rid of them, nor persuade them that we had nothing to give ; we were obliged to dismount and face them.

Shots were ex- changed, they missed us, two of them fell, and the other fled. We mounted again and jogged on. At last, after more than three months of riding and constant anxiety, we reached Potosi, where we knew nobody, and each of us went off on his own account to look for a place. I met Don Juan Lopez de Arguijo, veinticuatro l of the city of La Plata, and was engaged by him as camarero which is much the same as majordomo with a fixed salary of nine hundred pesos a year ; and he put me in charge of twelve thousand native sheep of 52 ' Shots -were exchanged, they missed us, two of them fell" burden 2 and eighty Indians, and with these I set out for Las Charcas, where my master also went.

We had not been there long when my master had difficulties and disputes with certain men, and these differences ended in quarrels, imprisonment, and embargoes, which caused me to take my leave and go back again. He got together a corps against the mutineers, who numbered over a hundred. Dominic's Street. The Corregidor challenged them in a loud voice, " Who goes there? He challenged them again, and some of them shouted, " Liberty! They defended themselves in like fashion, and, after driving them into a street, we charged them in the rear from the S3 other end of it with such effect that they sur- rendered.

Of those who got away we after- wards captured thirty-six, among them Ibafiez. We counted seven of their dead and two of ours ; there were many wounded on both sides. Some of the prisoners were tortured, and con- fessed to planning a general rising in the city for that night. Three companies of men from Biscay and the mountain were raised as a city guard ; and a fortnight later all the mutineers were hanged, and the city was at peace.

After this either for some exploit which I may have done then, or perhaps for some- thing that I had done previously I was appointed to the post of serjeant-major, which I held for two years. Don Bartolome de Alva was Camp- master ; he equipped the expedition and arranged its route, and when everything was in train we left Potosi twenty days later. We took guides with us, and yet we lost our way, and were in great difficulties on the ledges of rock, over which twelve men toppled, as well as fifty mules carrying supplies and ammunition.

On reaching the interior of the district, we came upon plains thick with innumerable almond-trees, like those in Spain, olives, and fruit-trees. The Governor wanted to sow seed there to make good our loss of provisions, and the infantry refused, saying that we had not come there to sow but to conquer and collect gold, and that we could look for food on the march. Advancing, on the third day we came upon a tribe of Indians, who ran to arms. We got up to them, and at the report of the harquebuses they fled in confusion, leaving some dead behind. We entered the village, without being able to capture an Indian to act as guide.

At the entrance to the village, the Camp- master, Bartolom6 de Alva, feeling the weight 56 of his helmet, took it off to wipe away the sweat, and a little devil of a boy about twelve years old, who had clambered up a tree, let fly at him an arrow, which pierced his eye and knocked him over, wounding him so seriously that he died three days afterwards. We sliced the boy into ten thousand bits. Meanwhile the Indians, over ten thousand in number, had returned to the village. We charged them so fiercely and slaughtered them so that a stream of blood poured down the place like a river.

We kept up the pursuit and butchery to beyond the river Dorado. Here the Governor ordered us to retire, and we did so unwillingly, for some of our men had found some sixty thousand pesos l worth of gold-dust in the village cabins, and others found vast quantities of it on the bank of the river, and filled their hats with it ; and we afterwards heard that the ebb usually leaves a deposit of it three fingers'-breadth in depth. Accordingly, later on, many of us asked leave of the Governor to conquer this district, and as he, for reasons of his own, refused it, many of us of whom I was one broke out at night 57 and deserted, and on reaching a town occupied by Christians, we each went off on our own account.

I myself went to Cenhiago, and thence to the province of Las Charcas, with a few silver coins, which, little by little, but quickly enough, I lost. While on the look- out for a place I found refuge under the roof of a widow lady, named Dona Catarina de Chaves, esteemed as the most important and noble lady in the city. At the entreaty of one of her servants, with whom I had formed a chance friendship, she promised to give me shelter for a time.

Now it came to pass that, as this lady was going to Stations on Maundy Thursday, at St. Francis's, she met Dona Francisca Marmolejo, wife of Don Pedro de Andrade, nephew of the Count de Lemos ; and they came to words over some question of precedence, and Dona Francisca so far forgot herself as to strike Dona Catarina with her patten ; whereon there was a great disturbance and crush of people. Dona Catarina went home, where her relatives and acquaintances collected, and the matter was passionately debated.

The other lady stayed 60 " They led her forth to her house" in the church amid a similar group of her partisans, not daring to leave till nightfall, when her husband, Don Pedro, arrived, accom- panied by Don Rafael Ortiz de Sotomayor, Corregidor he is now Corregidor at Madrid and Knight of Malta, together with the ordinary Alcaldes and constables, bearing lighted torches ; and they led her forth to her house. While going along the street leading from St. At this instant an Indian ran by in the direction of the noise, and, as he passed near the Senora Dona Francisca Marmolejo, he gave her a slash in the face with a knife or razor, cut it right across, and rushed on.

This happened so suddenly that her husband, Don Pedro, did not notice it at the moment. When he did there was a great din, uproar, hurlyburly, rush of people, knifing, and arrests a deafening confusion. Meanwhile the Indian went to the Senora 61 Dona Catarina's house, and said to the lady, as he entered, " It is done! Something must have been discovered during the investigations, for on the third day the Corregidor came to Dona Catarina's house, and found her sitting in her parlour.

After administering the oath, he asked her if she knew who had cut Dona Francisca Marmolejo's face, and she said she did. He asked her who it was. Thereon he went away, setting a guard over her. He cross-examined the servants till he came to an Indian, whom he threatened with the rack; and the craven averred that he had seen me go out wearing an Indian costume and wig, given me by his mistress ; that a Biscayan barber, called Francisco Ciguren, bought the razor ; and that he had seen me come in and heard me say, "It is done! In this fashion some days passed, when one 62 night an Alcalde of the High Court, who had taken the case in hand, and for what reason I don't know arrested some constables, entered the jail and tortured the barber, who at once confessed his own sins and his neigh- bours'.

Hereupon the Alcalde came to me and took my statement; I flatly denied any knowledge of the affair. He then had me stripped and placed on the rack, when a solicitor came forward, pleading that as I was a Biscayan and therefore entitled to the privilege of nobility torture could not be applied to me. They gave the screws a turn : I was firm as an oak. They kept at it, questioning me and twisting the screws, when a letter was brought in from as I after- wards learned Dona Catarina de Chaves.

This was placed in the Alcalde's hand, he opened it and read it, stood looking at me awhile, and said, " Lift the youngster off that! The suit continued how I can't tell and I came out of it condemned to ten years' 63 service in Chile without pay , and the barber to two hundred lashes and six years at the galleys.

We appealed, soliciting support from the men of our province, and the affair went its course but how is more than I can say , till one day the High Court gave judgement : whereby I was acquitted as was the barber , and the Senora Dona Francisca was con- demned in costs. These miracles often happen in such cases, especially in the Indies, thanks to intelligent knavery. I went to Las Charcas, sixteen leagues off. He gave me a large sum of money so that I might go to the plains of Cochabamba, buy wheat, and, after having it ground, sell it at Potosi, where there was a dearth and where it would fetch a high price.

I went there, bought eight thousand fanegas' 2 at the rate of four pesos, loaded them on the sheep, came to the mills at Guilcomayo, had three thousand five hundred fanegas ground, took them to Potosi, and sold them at once to the bakers at the rate of fifteen pesos and a half. I returned to the mills, where I found part of the rest ground, and purchasers, to whom I sold the whole at the rate of ten pesos. I went back with the cash to my master at Las Charcas, and, the profit being so great, he sent me back again on the same errand to Cochabamba. There were present the Vicar-General, the Archdeacon, and a Seville merchant who had married there.

I sat down to play with the mer- chant ; the game was in progress, and at one deal the merchant, who was already ruffled, said, " I stake! I drew mine. The bystanders seized us and sepa- rated us. The conversation changed and continued till late at night, when I went home. I had not gone far when, at the corner of a street, I came on him.

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He drew his rapier and advanced towards me. I drew mine, and we engaged. After some thrusting and parrying my point got home, and he fell. A crowd collected at the noise, the police 67 came up and tried to arrest me. I resisted, received two wounds, and retreated, taking sanctuary in the cathedral.

There I remained some days, having been warned by my master to be careful. At last one night, choosing my time well and finding the coast clear, I set out for Piscobamba. One night, during supper, we got up a gamble with some friends who dropped in. I sat down to play against a Portuguese, Fernando de Acosta, a great plunger.

He led off by staking fourteen pesos on each trick. I scored sixteen tricks against him. He gave himself a slap in the face, saying, "May the devil incarnate fly away with me! The bystanders intervened, held us back, and reconciled us, and we all talked and jested about rows at cards. He paid, and went away, apparently calmed down.

Three nights later, at about eleven o'clock, as I was going home, I noticed a man standing at a street- corner. I swung my cloak over my shoulder, drew my rapier, and went towards him. We engaged, I ran my point into him, and he fell dead. I paused awhile, wondering what I should do. Looking about me I observed nobody who could have seen us, so I went to my friend Zaragoza's house, held my tongue, and got into bed.

Early next morning the Co- rregidor, Don Pedro de Meneses, came, roused me, and walked me off. I reached the jail and was put in irons. About an hour after- wards the Corregidor came with a notary, and took my statement. Then they tortured me, and I denied everything.

The indictment was drawn up, evidence was collected, and I gave mine. When the case came on witnesses were produced whom I had never even seen. Sentence of death was passed. I appealed, but nevertheless an order to execute me was issued. I was utterly cast down. A monk C'ime in to hear my confession ; I refused. He persisted ; I held out. A cataract of monks was let loose on me, enough to swamp me, but I proved a Luther. I was rigged out in a taffeta suit and hoisted on a horse. The Corregidor was bent on it, and told the monks who beset him that if I chose to go to hell it was none of his business.

They hauled me out of jail, and took me down unfrequented streets, so as to keep clear of the monks. I came to the gibbet. The bawling and hustling of the monks dazed me. They forced me up four steps, and the man who pestered me most was a Dominican, Fray Andre's de San Pablo, whom I saw and talked with about a year ago at Madrid in the College of Atocha. I was forced a little higher up. They placed round my neck the volattn that is the thin rope used for hanging , and the executioner fumbled over it. I called out, "You drunkard! Put it on properly, or take it off!

These priests are enough to put up with! The reason of this was extraordinary, and a manifest mercy of God. It seems that those who professed to be eye-witnesses in the case of the Portuguese fell into the clutch of the law at La Plata for what offences I don't know , and were sentenced to be hanged ; and, at the foot of the gibbet, without hearing of my plight, they owned that, being suborned and paid, and knowing nothing at all about me, they had perjured themselves in the murder case; and accordingly the Court, at the instance of Martin de Mendiola, took action and ordered a respite.

This message, which came so opportunely, moved the com- passionate populace to joy. The Corregidor ordered me to be removed from the scaffold and taken back to jail, whence he sent me under escort to La Plata.

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When I reached there, and they looked into the depositions which those men at the foot of the gibbet 73 had rendered worthless , inasmuch as there was no other evidence against me, I was released twenty-four days later, and I remained there a little while. We checked the accounts, and there remained a balance of one thousand pesos in favour of the said Arguijo, my master, and against the said Chavarria, who cheerfully and courteously handed me the sum ; and he invited me to dinner and took me into his house for two days.

And then I said farewell and departed with instructions from his wife to visit her mother, the nun, at La Plata, and to give her many kind messages. After leaving them I was kept busy with friends over odds and ends of things till late in the afternoon. At last I started, and my road took me past the said Chavarria's door. As I went by I saw a crowd in the porch and heard a disturbance inside. I stopped to 76 find out what the matter was, and at that moment Dona Maria Davalos called to me from the window : " Senor Captain, take me with you, for my husband wants to kill me!

I never halted til] midnight, when I came to the La Plata river. On the road I had met a servant of Chavarria's returning from La Plata, and he must have recognised us in spite of my efforts to give him a wide berth and cloak myself up ; and apparently he informed his master. On reaching the river I was dismayed, for it was full, and it seemed to me impossible to ford it. Dona Maria Ddvalos said to me, " Forward! I 77 remounted, with my distressed lady riding pillion, and plunged in, going deeper and deeper. God helped us, and we crossed over.

I reached an inn upon which we stumbled close by. I roused the landlord, who was amazed at seeing us at that hour, and at our having crossed the river. I looked after my mule and let it have a rest. The landlord gave us some eggs, bread, and fruit, and we tried to wring out our clothes ; and setting off again, we pressed on, and at daybreak, about five leagues away, we sighted the city of La Plata. We were going along, somewhat consoled by this, when suddenly Dona Maria clasped me tighter, saying, "Good Heavens!

I don't know, and I still wonder how this could be, for I started first from Cochabamba, leaving him in his house, and, without stopping an instant, I reached the river, crossed it, came to the inn, stayed there about an hour, and set off again. Apart from this, it must have taken some time for the servant whom I met 78 ' He blazed at us -with his musket: on the road, and who apparently informed him to reach Cochabamba, and for him to saddle and start.

How then could he catch me up on the road? I cannot imagine, unless it be that, not knowing the way, I took a more roundabout route than he did. Anyhow, when about thirty paces off he blazed at us with his musket and missed, the bullets passing so close that we could hear them whiz by. I urged on my mule, scrambled down a slope overgrown with thicket, and saw no more of him no doubt his horse was dead beat.

After a ride of something like four long leagues from this point, I reached La Plata quite weary and faint. I went to the door of St. Augustine's Convent, and then handed over Dona Maria Davalos to her mother. I was going back for my mule when I met Pedro de Chavarria, who dashed at me, rapier in hand, without giving time for any explana- tion. I was startled at seeing him, it was so unexpected. He came upon me when I was ex- hausted, and I pitied his delusion in thinking that I had done him a wrong. I drew my rapier, 79 and kept on the defensive.

We entered the church, fighting as we went. He must have been a crack, for he pinked me twice in the chest without my having touched him. Being now roused, I pressed him, and drove him backwards to the altar ; there he made a tremendous cut at my head, and, warding it off with my dagger, 1 I drove my rapier a hand's-breadth into his side. So many people rushed up that we could not go on. The police arrived and wanted to haul us out of the church.

Hereupon two monks of the monastery of St. Francis, which is just opposite, passed me through and took me in, with the con- nivance of the Chief Alguazil, Don Pedro Beltran, brother-in-law of my master, Juan L6pez de Arguijo. Charitably received into St. Francis's Monastery, and there, tended by the fathers, I lay secluded for five months. It also took a long while to heal Chavarria's wounds, and he kept on clamouring for his wife to be given back to him.

Concerning this demand there were proceedings and investigations, she pleading the manifest danger to her life. The Archbishop, Presi- 80 dent, and other authorities intervened, and at last it was arranged that both should enter religion and be professed ; she in the convent, and he wherever he chose.

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There remained my case and the indictment against me. This being estab- lished and admitted, the prosecution was withdrawn and ended, and the couple duly entered religion. I came out of my retreat, settled my accounts, and often visited my nun and her mother and the other ladies there, who, in their gratitude, entertained me hand- somely. The Senora Dona Maria de Ulloa, grateful for what I had done to serve her obtained for me from the President and Court a commission to go to Piscobamba and the plains of Mizque to investigate and punish certain crimes reported from there, for which purpose they assigned me a notary and alguazil, and we set out.

I went to Pisco- bamba, where I issued a warrant and arrested Ensign Francisco de Escobar, resident and married there, on a charge of treacherously killing Indians in order to rob them, and of burying them at his own house in a quarry. I had this dug out, and found them there. I pursued my investigation in all its details till it was complete ; when it was closed and the parties were called before me I gave judge- ment, sentencing the prisoner to death. He lodged an appeal, which I granted ; the case and the accused went before the Court of La Plata ; sentence was confirmed and the culprit hanged.

I went on to the plains of Mizque, settled the affair that took me there, returned to La Plata, and reported what I had done, handing in the documents concerning Mizque ; and after this I remained some days at La Plata. Without a care to trouble me, I stopped one day at the gate of Don Antonio Barraza, the Corregidor, to gossip with a servant of his, and the devil fanning the embers the end of it was that he gave me the lie and struck me in the face with his hat : I drew my dagger, and he fell dead on the spot.

So many people set upon me that I was wounded, seized, and taken to jail. My convalescence and prosecution went on side by side. After the indictment was drawn up and closed, other charges were included in it, and the Corregidor sentenced me to death. I appealed, but nevertheless he ordered the execution to be carried out. I spent two days confessing my sins ; next morning Mass was said in jail, and the holy priest, having consumed, turned round, gave me Communion, and went back to the altar.

Instantly I dropped the Host out of my mouth into the palm of my right hand, crying out, " I appeal to the Church! I appeal to the Church! The priest 88 returned on hearing this noise, and gave orders that no one should go near me. He finished his Mass, and then the Lord Bishop, Don Fray Domingo de Valderrama, a Dominican, entered together with the Governor ; priests and a crowd of the laity collected together, candles were lighted, a canopy was brought, and they took me in procession as far as the tabernacle where, while all fell on their knees, a priest, duly vested, took the Host from my hand and placed It in the tabernacle ; I could not see in which vessel he placed It ; then my hand was scraped, washed repeatedly, and dried ; the church was cleared even of the authorities, and I remained there.

This plan was sug- gested to me by a holy Franciscan monk who had given me good advice in jail, and finally heard my confession. For nearly a month the Governor kept the church closed, and me under restraint ; at last he withdrew the sentries, and a holy priest by order of the Bishop, I presume , after seeing that the neighbourhood and road were clear, gave me a mule and money, and I set out for Cuzco.

There are eight parishes, four monasteries of monks Franciscans, Dominicans, Mercenarians, and Augustinians , four colleges, two convents of nuns, and three hospitals. While I was there another grave disaster befell me, and one really and truly undeserved, for, though of bad repute, I was wholly free from blame.

Don Luis de Godoy, Corregidor of Cuzco, a gentleman of great gifts and one of the most notable thereabouts, died suddenly one night. He was murdered, as was dis- covered later, by one Carranza, because of certain grievances too long to tell, and, as he was not detected at once, the murder was put down to me ; and the Corregidor, Fernando de Guzman, arrested me and kept me, sorely afflicted, in jail for five months till, at the end of this length of time, it pleased God to make manifest the truth and my entire innocence in the matter.

Whereupon I was set free, and departed thence. The Dutch were then attacking Lima with eight men- of-war, and the city was under arms. We went out with five ships from the port of Callao to meet them, and engaged them, and for a long while luck was on our side ; but they hammered our flagship so heavily that she sank, and not more than three of us contrived to escape by swimming till we came to one of the enemy's ships, which picked us up.

The three were I, a barefooted Franciscan monk, and a soldier, and we were rudely greeted with japes and sneers. All the rest on board the flagship perished. Next day when our vessels, commanded by General Don Rodrigo de Mendoza, returned to the port of Callao, nine hundred men were missing, among whom they reckoned me, as having been on the flagship. I was twenty-six days in the enemy's hands, dreading that they would take me to Holland. At the end of this time they set me and my two companions ashore at Paita, about a hundred leagues 94 from Lima ; and some days later, after we had suffered many hardships, a kindly man, touched by our destitution, clothed us, set us on the right road, and gave us where- withal to reach Lima, and we arrived there.

I stayed seven months at Lima, struggling as best I could. I bought a horse, which turned out good and not dear, and I rode it for a few days while arranging to set out to Cuzco. As I was about to leave, I was passing through the square one day when an alguazil came up to tell me that the Senor Alcalde, Don Juan de Espinosa, Knight of the Order of Santiago, wanted me. I went to his worship. Two soldiers were there, and, as I arrived, they said : " That is it, sir! This horse is ours : we lost it, and can soon prove it. And I said : " Sir, I beseech your worship to bid these gentlemen tell you which of this horse's 95 eyes is blind, the right or the left.

It may be another horse altogether, and these gentlemen may have made a mistake. Answer both of you together ; which is the blind eye? The Alcalde said : " Now then, both together! I mean the left. I got up, and rode off, and never heard how the affair ended, because I went on to Cuzco. One day I went into a friend's house to gamble ; two of us who were friends sat down to play, and the game went on ; the new Cid took a place beside me a dark, hairy man, of great height and truculent appearance, nicknamed "the Cid.

Soon afterwards he came back once more, took another dip, helped himself to a handful, and placed himself behind me. I got my dagger ready, continued playing, and he again dipped into my money. I felt he was going to do so, and nailed his hand to the table with my dagger. I jumped up and drew my rapier, the bystanders drew theirs ; other friends of the Cid joined in, pressed me hard, and wounded me thrice.

I reached the street, and this was a piece of luck, for other- wise they would have cut me into ribbons. The first man to follow me was Cid. In this case, the shadow that the frame cast in the upper part of the image obliged Henneman to try out different exposure times in order to conceal its effects, given that the fragility of the original object made of terracotta meant that it could not be removed from its frame. The developing of the negatives was an essential part of the photographic process. This was carried out by placing the negative over sensitised paper inside a frame, which, subsequently, was exposed to the light of the sun on a series of aligned supports, as we can see in the picture presented at the exhibition staged at the Reading Establishment.

The exposure time depended on the light conditions. The density and quality of the negative also influenced the outcome and, of course, the degree of sensitivity of the paper used to copy it, which could also vary given that its was prepared manually. This is why the quality of the positives obtained was quite variable. In this respect, he requested a photograph of a print of this painting that had been included in a publication on the works of the Belvedere Gallery in Vienna.

The first photograph obtained, which was almost the same size as the print, was too big for publication in the Talbotypes book. So Stirling commissioned a second, smaller copy.


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Thanks to this smaller size, the examples of this image preserved inside the volumes have suffered a lower degree of fading around the edges due to exposure to the air, which is why nearly all of them have been preserved in a favourable condition. Talbotypes were not always published in their original size. If a smaller-sized image was required — and given that enlargers did not yet exist — it was necessary to photograph the object again from a greater distance or trim the negative. After photographing the whole drawing, Stirling decided to trim the negative in order show only the head and the shoulders.

The main problems entailed by photographing this kind of three-dimensional work consisted of the lighting, which was susceptible to creating highly accentuated shadow and light, and the impossibility of capturing any colour differences. In his description of the picture, Stirling confused the iconography of Santa Catalina with that of Santa Teresa. Photographing works of art located inside buildings constituted the main difficulty that the early photographers were forced to overcome, given that they needed natural light and it was difficult to move the pieces from their original location.

The difficulty when it came to reproducing the light contrasts in this cathedral-like interior can be observed in both the lithograph and in the photographs. He devoted four images to illustrating its architecture, all photographs of prints from two widely-disseminated series. The first two, which were published in as large a format as that permitted by the book, came from an official Spanish project published in the early nineteenth century, which offered a scrupulously objective perspective of the building, without ignoring its atmospheric impact.

The second two reproduce a French series dating from the seventeenth century, which was widely copied throughout Europe and helped to disseminate the image of the building internationally. Contrary to the first two, these prints, which are somewhat more crude and feature extremely forced perspectives, were published in the smallest formats included in the book. In his publication, Stirling granted considerable importance to the portraits of artists. In this respect, and because they featured at the beginning of their own books, they can be considered to be true likenesses.

They also demonstrate the value of engraving as an essential medium within the realm of culture in general. The drawing that copied the print may have been produced by Stirling himself. The engravers, the majority of whom were Flemish — and, therefore, resident in the territories ruled by the Spanish Monarchy —, came to Spain in order to fulfil the needs of a publishing industry that lacked Spanish engravers.

By including them in the Annals , he made them part of the history of Spanish art, given that he was well aware of the fact that the pictures they produced, in addition to their artistic value, also possessed a documentary interest in terms of illustrating different aspects of culture, society and history. Frontispieces — illustrated title pages full of symbols referring to the contents of the book — constituted the most characteristic type of illustration during the first half of the seventeenth century.

The books that Stirling asked to be photographed came mainly from his own library and that of his friend, Richard Ford. Stirling chose it because Velasquez took part in organising the protocol. In order to reproduce the details in the best manner possible, Stirling commissioned a photograph that was larger than usual, which he published in a two-page spread. An interest in portraits as an artistic genre can be perceived throughout the pages of the Annals.

Stirling carefully selected these portraits in order to offer the greatest variety possible. Here we exhibit two photographic positives taken from two negatives of different sizes. For the second portrait he chose Queen Mary Stuart as a model due to her symbolic character for all Scots Stirling was Scottish. The difficulties experienced in creating positives are evident in these works, given that the results are extremely irregular in terms of tone and contrast.

In this manner he demonstrated his interest in engraving as a means of autonomous expression. The fact is that Ribera, in addition to being a well-known painter, was an important engraver, one who used this technique in order to disseminate and increase his fame.

Catalina la Grande : retrato de una mujer

In order to reproduce the quality of the print, Henneman created a large-format negative, although in the book he included a different negative of the habitual size. The greatest difficulty with this kind of photograph consisted in the reproduction of the white tones on the paper, something that was not always accomplished. The drawings came from the collection belonging to his friend, Richard Ford, who also loaned him the only known print made by Murillo. The main difficulty when it came to photographing them resided in the reproduction of the soft pencil and sanguine lines, as well as the delicate brown washes, something that was almost impossible at that time.

A good example of this is provided by the work Cristo by Murillo, which also presented the typical photographic problem of how to fix the image. The reproduction soon faded, which meant that a good number of the images included in the book had to be retouched with pencil, as can be seen in the copy belonging to the Museum of Romanticism exhibited in the central display case. For this reason, he commissioned a watercolour copy of this oil painting from the British miniaturist based in Paris, William Barclay. In view of the impossibility of photographing the paintings in their original locations due to lighting problems, Stirling tended to commission watercolours of the paintings he desired, so that he could photograph them afterwards.

His interest in this work, which was attributed to El Greco at the time, would lead him to purchase the painting during the sale of the Louis-Philippe Collection in Since then, it has been preserved at his residence, Pollok House, in Glasgow. Its authorship is the subject of study today. In this respect, a watercolour version of the picture was photographed that Stirling had commissioned from M. Tessin, a French copyist who had come strongly recommended. This type of copy would be small format and tended to simplify the painting. In the photograph, the nuances of the darker colours tended to be lost, which meant the shots had to be repeated or the negatives would be retouched.

In order to photograph the watercolours, these were attached with drawing pins to a board that was covered, in this case with a copy of a satirical magazine dating from Christmas Most of the talbotypes published in the Talbotype Illustrations have lost their sharpness and are somewhat pale. The same applies to the workshop proofs, of which we display one example here with the image inverted. In the painting was purchased by the National Gallery of London, not without controversy regarding its quality, which Stirling and Ford defended publicly. Published by Ed. About this Item: Ed.

Catalina la Grande : retrato de una mujer - AbeBooks - Robert K. Massie: X

Seller Inventory A More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. Dust Jacket Condition: Sin cubierta. Libro usado en buen estado. Ligeras rozaduras. More information about this seller Contact this seller Published by Edit. About this Item: Edit. Con sobrecubiertas Buen estado. From: Libros de papel Madrid, Spain.

Condition: Muy Bien. Published by circulo de lectores. About this Item: circulo de lectores. Condition: Nuevo. About this Item: Trad. Seller Inventory 0. Published by Emece Editores - Buenos Aires AS, Argentina. Coleccion "Literatura Universal". Traduccion de Anibal Leal.

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