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Although Robin is best known as Batman's sidekick, three Robins have also been members of the superhero group the Teen Titans with the original Robin, Dick Grayson , being a founding member and the group's leader. The following fictional characters have donned the Robin costume at various times in the main DC Universe continuity:.

See: Damian Wayne. A Batman story from the s featured the young Bruce Wayne assuming the identity of Robin, complete with the original costume, in order to learn the basics of detective work from a famous detective named Harvey Harris. This story was later revised in the s to edit out any reference to Bruce Wayne having ever called himself "Robin" or worn any costume before he finally donned his Batman costume as an adult. Post-Crisis , there was one instance in continuity when Bruce Wayne adopted the Robin persona.

In an effort to keep up the illusion of Batman, Bruce had Tim adopt the Batman identity while he is forced to be Robin. He eventually became a member of the Justice Society of America. During his later years, he adopted a more Batman-like look for a time, and by the s had become a lawyer and the ambassador to South Africa. Although in semi-retirement, he was called back to active duty when he rejoined the Justice Society during the period when Power Girl and Star-Spangled Kid also assisted them. He died during the miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths , in which the DC Multiverse was reduced to one universe, and this version of Grayson, as well as the Earth-Two Batman, were deemed never to have existed.

In the final issue of 52 , a new Multiverse is revealed, originally consisting of 52 identical realities.

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Among the parallel realities shown is one designated "Earth-2". As a result of Mister Mind "eating" aspects of this reality, it takes on visual aspects similar to the pre-Crisis Earth-2, including Robin among other Justice Society of America characters.

Robin (character) - Wikipedia

The names of the characters and the team are not mentioned in the panel in which they appear, but the Robin is visually similar to the Dick Grayson Robin of the pre-Crisis Earth-2 Because Grayson, Todd, and Drake are all black-haired Caucasians, it is not possible to assign an alter ego based on the single image. Based on comments by Grant Morrison , this alternate universe is not the pre-Crisis Earth However, in the Justice Society of America Annual 1 , published in the summer of , Silver Scarab explains that the events of the Crisis are remembered by the people of this Earth-2, and from their perspective, Earth-2 seemed to be the only Earth to have survived the Crisis, raising theories as to whether or not Earth-2 was really destroyed, or was perhaps replaced by a new Earth Birds were released around Melbourne , Auckland , Christchurch , Wellington and Dunedin by various local acclimatisation societies , with none becoming established.

There was a similar outcome in North America as birds failed to establish after being released in Long Island , New York in , Oregon in —, and the Saanich Peninsula in British Columbia in — The robin is diurnal , although has been reported to be active hunting insects on moonlit nights or near artificial light at night. Indeed, the robin is considered to be a gardener's friend and for various folklore reasons the robin would never be harmed. In continental Europe on the other hand, robins were hunted and killed as with most other small birds, and are more wary.

In autumn and winter, robins will supplement their usual diet of terrestrial invertebrates, such as spiders, worms and insects, with berries and fruit. Male robins are noted for their highly aggressive territorial behaviour. They will fiercely attack other males and competitors that stray into their territories and have been observed attacking other small birds without apparent provocation. There are instances of robins attacking themselves: having seen their own reflection. Because of high mortality in the first year of life, a robin has an average life expectancy of 1.

Robins may choose a wide variety of sites for building a nest. In fact, anything which can offer some shelter, like a depression or hole may be considered. As well as the usual crevices, or sheltered banks, other objects include pieces of machinery, barbecues, bicycle handlebars, bristles on upturned brooms, discarded kettles, watering cans, flower pots and even hats. The nest is composed of moss, leaves and grass, with fine grass, hair and feathers for lining. Two or three clutches of five or six eggs are laid throughout the breeding season, which commences in March in Britain and Ireland.

The eggs are a cream, buff or white speckled or blotched with reddish-brown colour, often more heavily so at the larger end. After two to three months out of the nest, the juvenile bird grows some orange feathers under its chin and over a similar period this patch gradually extends to complete the adult appearance. Both the male and female sing during the winter, when they hold separate territories, the song then sounding more plaintive than the summer version. The male robin keeps the same territory throughout the year.

Identification

During the breeding season, male robins usually initiate their morning song an hour before civil sunrise, and usually terminate their daily singing around thirty minutes after sunset. The avian magnetic compass of the robin has been extensively researched and uses vision-based magnetoreception , in which the robin's ability to sense the magnetic field of the earth for navigation is affected by the light entering the bird's eye. The physical mechanism of the robin's magnetic sense is not fully understood, but may involve quantum entanglement of electron spins.

The robin features prominently in British folklore, and that of northwestern France, but much less so in other parts of Europe. More recently, the robin has become strongly associated with Christmas , taking a starring role on many Christmas cards since the mid 19th century.

An old British folk tale seeks to explain the robin's distinctive breast. Legend has it that when Jesus was dying on the cross, the robin, then simply brown in colour, flew to his side and sang into his ear in order to comfort him in his pain. The blood from his wounds stained the robin's breast, and thereafter all robins got the mark of Christ's blood upon them. An alternative legend has it that its breast was scorched fetching water for souls in Purgatory. In the s, in a vote publicised by The Times , the robin was adopted as the unofficial national bird of the UK. Several English and Welsh sports organisations are nicknamed "the Robins".

The nickname is typically used for teams whose home colours predominantly use red. These include the professional football clubs Bristol City , Crewe Alexandra , Swindon Town , Cheltenham Town with Bristol City as of , [46] Swindon Town , and Cheltenham Town also incorporating a robin image in their current badge designs , and, traditionally, Wrexham FC , as well as the English rugby league team Hull Kingston Rovers whose home colours are white with a red band. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. European robin in Lancashire , England Conservation status.

Linnaeus , Retrieved 13 December Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata in Latin. Laurentii Salvii. Cassell's Latin Dictionary 5th ed.


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London, UK: Cassell Ltd. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short.

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A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project. Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. Volume 1 in French.

L'Institute National des Sciences et des Arts. Table 2. London, United Kingdom: Christopher Helm. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. World Bird List Version 6. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 20 May Robin Redbreast.

‘Stranger Things’: Why Robin and Steve Are the Best Part of Season 3

Oxford: Oxford, Clarendon Press. Journeys Through Bookland. BiblioBazaar, LLC. Bird Spotting. London, UK: Blandford. BL; Sibley CG A World Checklist of Birds. Avian Science. Das Rotkehlchen Erithacus rubecula. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume V. Tyrant Flycatchers to Thrushes.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dutch Birding. The alternative explanation — that Tenerife was colonised by already-distinct Gran Canaria robins — has not been explored and the proposed model relies only on probabilistic inference.

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Likewise, the seemingly exact molecular dating is doubtful as it assumes a molecular clock that may or may not be correct, and of course the assumption that the ancestor of all robins was similar in colouration to superbus and not the continental birds is, being inferred from their model of colonisation, entirely conjectural. Retrieved 21 January Yorkshire Post. Archived from the original on 8 May Retrieved 24 February Retrieved 5 August London: Dorling Kindersley. Birds of Wood, Park and Garden. Middlesex, England: Penguin. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments.

Terrey Hills, Sydney: Reed. The Garden RHS.


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